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  • Öğe
    The problems of project management mompanies in the Turkish construction and the real estate industries
    (Springer, 2022) Sümer, Levent; Kiraz, Fatih
    Effective project management has always been important for the success of different industries. From scope, time, and cost management to quality, risk, and procurement management, all aspects of project management need an integrated approach by using skilled staff and providing efficient communication among all stakeholders. While some companies establish in-house teams for managing their projects, some companies hire professional companies to act on their behalf. It is critical to measure the success of these companies, yet there are major obstacles that project management companies face while they are performing their responsibilities, which may cause failures. In that context, this study, as far as being the first research in the literature, investigates the main problems of project management (PM) companies in Turkey by focusing on the PM services in the construction and real estate industries. A survey was conducted among PM professionals working for PM companies, contractors, employers, designers, vendors, and sub-contractors to find out these problems. The need for PM standards, the balance between the responsibility and the authority of the PM companies, the existence of the PM companies providing very low prices, excessive employer intervention and delayed payments by employers were found to be the most important factors that cause problems. Developing PM standards, issuing legal regulations to be a PM company, right pricing policy, and on-time payments by the project owners were recommended by the participants as solutions.
  • Öğe
    Influencer versus celebrity endorser performance on Instagram
    (Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2020) Zeren, D.; Gökdağlı, Nilüfer
    With the evolution of technology, social network sites become a new medium for consumers and marketing professionals. Instagram is one of the fastest growing mediums since it allows marketing practitioners to interact with their audience by capturing and sharing photographs and videos to build a relationship and also has a great potential of online shopping. Instagram offers not only a new medium or e-shopping platform but also offers new ways of celebrity endorsements. Thousands or even millions of people follow not only traditional celebrities like actors, singer, etc. but also accounts of normal everyday people, called as influencers on these social media platforms like Instagram. The purpose of this paper is to examine how brands utilize influencers and celebrities for building and maintaining relationships with various publics on Instagram. This paper presents the results of a content analysis that examined the use of brands by Turkish influencers and celebrities on Instagram. Brands appearing on ten influencers’ and ten celebrities’ Instagram pages, during the first 5 months of 2019, were examined using a criteria set to make comparisons. The results of this research can be used as a starting point by brands targeting Turkish audience for determining marketing strategies on Instagram. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.