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Öğe Slime mould algorithm: a comprehensive survey of ıts variants and applications(SPRINGER, 2023) Gharehchopogh, Farhad Soleimanian; Ucan, Alaettin; Ibrikci, Turgay; Arasteh, Bahman; Isik, GultekinDaha fazla Meta-heuristic algorithms have a high position among academic researchers in various fields, such as science and engineering, in solving optimization problems. These algorithms can provide the most optimal solutions for optimization problems. This paper investigates a new meta-heuristic algorithm called Slime Mould algorithm (SMA) from different optimization aspects. The SMA algorithm was invented due to the fluctuating behavior of slime mold in nature. It has several new features with a unique mathematical model that uses adaptive weights to simulate the biological wave. It provides an optimal pathway for connecting food with high exploration and exploitation ability. As of 2020, many types of research based on SMA have been published in various scientific databases, including IEEE, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, Tandfonline, MDPI, etc. In this paper, based on SMA, four areas of hybridization, progress, changes, and optimization are covered. The rate of using SMA in the mentioned areas is 15, 36, 7, and 42%, respectively. According to the findings, it can be claimed that SMA has been repeatedly used in solving optimization problems. As a result, it is anticipated that this paper will be beneficial for engineers, professionals, and academic scientists.Daha fazla Öğe A new method to solve linear programming problems in the environment of picture fuzzy sets(Iranian Journal of Fuzzy Systems, 2022) Akram, Muhammad; Ullah, Iftikhar; Allahviranloo, TofighDaha fazla Picture fuzzy set is characterized by neutral membership function along with the membership and non-membership functions, and is, therefore, more general than the intuitionistic fuzzy set which is only characterized by membership and non-membership functions. In this paper, first, we are going to point out a drawback and try to fix it by the existing trapezoidal picture fuzzy number. Furthermore, we define an LR flat picture fuzzy number, which is a generalization of trapezoidal picture fuzzy numbers. We also discuss a linear programming model with LR flat picture fuzzy numbers as parameters and variables and present a method to solve these type of problems using a generalized ranking function.Daha fazla Öğe A reinforcement learning-based metaheuristic algorithm for solving global optimization problems(Elsevier, 2023) Seyyedabbasi, AmirDaha fazla The purpose of this study is to utilize reinforcement learning in order to improve the performance of the Sand Cat Swarm Optimization algorithm (SCSO). In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for the solution of global optimization problems that is called RLSCSO. In this method, metaheuristic algorithm is combined with rein-forcement learning techniques to form a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm. This study aims to provide search agents with the opportunity to perform efficient exploration of the search space in order to find a global optimal solution by using efficient exploration and exploitation to find optimal solutions within a given search space. A comprehensive evaluation of the RLSCSO has been conducted on 20 benchmark functions and 100-digit chal-lenge basic test functions. Additionally, the proposed algorithm is applied to the problem of localizing mobile sensor nodes, which is NP-hard (nondeterministic polynomial time). Several extensive analyses have been conducted in order to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm in solving global optimization problems. In terms of cost values, the RLSCSO algorithm provides the optimal solution, along with tradeoffs between exploration and exploitation.Daha fazla Öğe Fuzzy generalized fractional power series technique for simulating fuzzy fractional relaxation problem(Springer link, 2022) Ebdalifar, Khatereh; Allahviranloo, Tofigh; Rostamy-Malkhalifeh, Mohsen; Behzadi, Mohammad HassanDaha fazla In this paper, the fuzzy generalized fractional power series method is proposed to obtain the numerical solutions of a class of fuzzy fractional relaxation problems. For this purpose, the fuzzy generalized fractional power series under different types of the Caputo generalized Hukuhara differentiability are introduced. Some theorems are generalized for the fuzzy generalized fractional power series. This method is based on first taking the truncated fuzzy generalized fractional power series of the functions in the relaxation problem and then substituting them into the equation. Hence, the result equation can be solved, and the unknown fuzzy coefficients can be found. In addition, to demonstrate the efficiency of the method, some examples are solved. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.Daha fazla Öğe Solution of initial-value problem for linear third-order fuzzy differential equations(SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2022) Muhammad, Ghulam; Allahviranloo, Tofigh; Pedrycz, WitoldDaha fazla Every real-world physical problem is inherently based on uncertainty. It is essential to model the uncertainty then solve, analyze and interpret the result one encounters in the world of vagueness. Generally, science and engineering problems are governed by differential equations. But the parameters, variables and initial conditions involved in the system contain uncertainty due to the lack of information in measurement, observations and experiment. However, It is necessary to develop a comprehensive approach for solving differential equations in an uncertain environment. The purpose of this work is to study and investigate the fuzzy solution of linear third-order fuzzy differential equations using the concept of strongly generalized Hukuhara differentiability (SGHD). To make our analysis possible, we apply the first and second differentiability up to the third-order fuzzy derivative of the fuzzy-valued function. Moreover, we develop an important result concerning the relationship between Laplace transform of fuzzy-valued function and third-order derivative. We construct an algorithm to determine a potential solution of linear third-order fuzzy initial-value problem using the Laplace transform technique. All these solutions are represented in terms of the Mittag-Leffler function involving a single series. Furthermore, we discuss the switching points of linear third-order differential equations and their corresponding solutions in fuzzy environments. To enhance the novelty of the proposed technique, some illustrative examples are presented as applications are analyzed to visualize and support theoretical results.Daha fazla Öğe Data preprocessing strategy in constructing convolutional neural network classifier based on constrained particle swarm optimization with fuzzy penalty function(Elsevier, 2022) Zhou, Kun; Oh, Sung-Kwun; Pedrycz, Witold; Qiu, JianlongDaha fazla Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years because of their powerful abilities to extract and represent spatial/temporal information. However, for general data, its features are assumed to have weak or no correlation, and directly applying CNN to classify such data could result in poor classification performance. To address this problem, a combined technique of original data representation method of fuzzy penalty function-based constrained particle swarm optimization (FCPSO) and CNN, so-called FCPSO-CNN is designed to effectively solve the classification problems for generic dataset and applied to recognize (classify) black plastic wastes in recycling problems. In more detail, CPSO is introduced to optimize feature reordering matrix under constraints and the construction of this matrix is driven by fitness function of CNN that quantifies classification performance. The Mamdani type fuzzy inference system (FIS) is employed to realize the fuzzy penalty function (FPF) which is utilized to realize the constrained problems of CPSO as well as alleviate the issues of the original penalty function method suffering from the lack of robustness. Experimental results demonstrate that FCPSO-CNN achieves the best classification accuracy on 13 out of 17 datasets; the statistical analysis also confirms the superiority of FCPSO-CNN. An interesting point is worth to mention that some feature reordering matrices in the infeasible space come with better classification accuracy. It has been found that the proposed method results in more accurate solution than one-dimensional CNN, random reordering feature-based CNN and some well-known classifiers (e.g., Naive Bayes, Multilayer perceptron, Support vector machine).Daha fazla Öğe A new maximal flow algorithm for solving optimization problems with linguistic capacities and flows(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2022) Akram, Muhammad; Habib, Amna; Allahviranloo, TofighDaha fazla The maximal flow problems (MFPs) are among the most significant optimization problems in network flow theory with widespread and diverse applications. To represent qualitative aspects of uncertainty in the maximal flow model, which asks for the largest amount of flow transported from one vertex to another, the use of linguistic variables has effective means for experts in expressing their views. In this paper, we first define trapezoidal Pythagorean fuzzy numbers (TrPFNs) along with some new arithmetic operations which cover the gaps in previously defined operations. For defuzzification of TrPFNs, we introduce a ranking procedure based on value and ambiguity indices. This work puts forward a the-oretical framework for a new Pythagorean fuzzy maximal flow algorithm (PFMFA), which helps to solve different optimization problems with PF information by considering linguis-tic capacities and flows. The implementation of the algorithm is elaborated by considering two case studies. Firstly, we examine the maximum flow of a water distribution pipeline network in Pyigyitagon Township, Mandalay, Myanmar. Secondly, we compute maximum PF power flow in a 14-bus electricity network provided by the IEEE working group, con-cerning the example data from the University of Washington. The results illustrate the superiority of the proposed method and give a detailed analysis of flow connected with several practical performances. In addition, the Pythagorean fuzzy optimal flows corre-sponding to each network arc are compared and performance comparison of our method is investigated which shows the increasing and decreasing trends of backward and forward arcs of the network, respectively. Moreover, the runtime analysis of existing well-known maximal flow algorithms is provided. Finally, we present the advantages of our technique to promote its cogency. (c) 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Daha fazla Öğe An improved farmland fertility algorithm with hyper-heuristic approach for solving travelling salesman problem(TECH SCIENCE PRESS, 2022) Gharehchopogh, Farhad Soleimanian; Abdollahzadeh, Benyamin; Arasteh, BahmanDaha fazla ravelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is a discrete hybrid optimization problem considered NP-hard. TSP aims to discover the shortest Hamilton route that visits each city precisely once and then returns to the starting point, making it the shortest route feasible. This paper employed a Farmland Fertility Algorithm (FFA) inspired by agricultural land fertility and a hyper-heuristic technique based on the Modified Choice Function (MCF). The neighborhood search operator can use this strategy to automatically select the best heuristic method for making the best decision. Lin-Kernighan (LK) local search has been incorporated to increase the efficiency and performance of this suggested approach. 71 TSPLIB datasets have been compared with different algorithms to prove the proposed algorithm's performance and efficiency. Simulation results indicated that the proposed algorithm outperforms comparable methods of average mean computation time, average percentage deviation (PDav), and tour length.Daha fazla Öğe Classical and intelligent methods in model extraction and stabilization of a dual-axis reaction wheel pendulum: a comparative study(Elsevier B.V., 2022) Tavakol Aghaei, Vahid; Akbulut, Batuhan Ekin; Tan, Deniz; Allahviranloo, Tofigh; Fernandez Gamiz, Unai; Noeiaghdam, Samad; Bezci, Yüksel EdizDaha fazla Controlling underactuated open-loop unstable systems is challenging. In this study, first, both nonlinear and linear models of a dual-axis reaction wheel pendulum (DA-RWP) are extracted by employing Lagrangian equations which are based on energy methods. Then to control the system and stabilize the pendulum's angle in the upright position, fuzzy logic based controllers for both x ? y directions are developed. To show the efficiency of the designed intelligent controller, comparisons are made with its classical optimal control counterparts. In our simulations, as proof of the reliability and robustness of the fuzzy controller, two scenarios including noise-disturbance-free and noisy-disturbed situations are considered. The comparisons made between the classical and fuzzy-based controllers reveal the superiority of the proposed fuzzy logic controller, in terms of time response. The simulation results of our experiments in terms of both mathematical modeling and control can be deployed as a baseline for robotics and aerospace studies as developing walking humanoid robots and satellite attitude systems, respectively.Daha fazla Öğe Fuzzy control problem via random multi-valued equations in symmetric F-n-NLS(MDPI, 2022) Saadati, Reza; Allahviranloo, Tofigh; O'Regan, Donal; Alshammari, Fehaid SalemDaha fazla To study an uncertain case of a control problem, we consider the symmetric F-n-NLS which is induced by a dynamic norm inspired by a random norm, distribution functions, and fuzzy sets. In this space, we consider a random multi-valued equation containing a parameter and investigate existence, and unbounded continuity of the solution set of it. As an application of our results, we consider a control problem with multi-point boundary conditions and a second order derivative operator.Daha fazla Öğe Program source code comprehension by module clustering using combination of discretized gray wolf and genetic algorithms(Elsevier Ltd, 2022) Arasteh, Bahman; Abdi, Mohammad; Bouyer, AsgaraliDaha fazla Maintenance is a critical and costly phase of software lifecycle. Understanding the structure of software will make it much easier to maintain the software. Clustering the modules of software is regarded as a useful reverse engineering technique for constructing software structural models from source code. Minimizing the connections between produced clusters, maximizing the internal connections within the clusters, and maximizing the clustering quality are the most important objectives in software module clustering. Finding the optimal software clustering model is regarded as an NP-complete problem. The low success rate, limited stability, and poor modularization quality are the main drawbacks of the previous methods. In this paper, a combination of gray wolf optimization algorithm and genetic algorithms is suggested for efficient clustering of software modules. An extensive series of experiments on 14 standard benchmarks have been conducted to evaluated the proposed method. The results illustrate that using the combination of gray wolf and genetic algorithms to the software-module clustering problem increases the quality of clustering. In terms of modularization quality and convergence speed, proposed hybrid method outperforms the other heuristic approaches.Daha fazla Öğe Clustered design-model generation from a program source code using chaos-based metaheuristic algorithms(Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022) Arasteh, BahmanDaha fazla Comprehension of the structure of software will facilitate maintaining the software more efficiently. Clustering software modules, as a reverse engineering technique, is assumed to be an effective technique in extracting comprehensible structural-models of software from the source code. Finding the best clustering model of a software system is regarded as a NP-complete problem. Minimizing the connections among the created clusters, maximizing the internal connections within the created clusters and maximizing the clustering quality are considered to be the most important objectives in software module clustering (SMC). Poor success rate, low stability and modularization quality are regarded as the major drawbacks of the previously proposed methods. In this paper, five different heuristic algorithms (Bat, Cuckoo, Teaching–Learning-Based, Black Widow and Grasshopper algorithms) are proposed for optimal clustering of software modules. Also, the effects of chaos theory in the performance of these algorithms in this problem have been experimentally investigated. The results of conducted experiments on the eight standard and real-world applications indicate that performance of the BWO, PSO, and TLB algorithms are higher than the other algorithms in SMC problem; also, the performance of these algorithm increased when their initial population were generated with logistic chaos method instead of random method. The average MQ of the generated clusters for the selected benchmark set by BWO, PSO and TLB are 3.155, 3.120 and 2.778, respectively.Daha fazla Öğe FIP: A fast overlapping community-based influence maximization algorithm using probability coefficient of global diffusion in social networks(Elsevier Ltd, 2023) Bouyer, Asgarali; Ahmadi Beni, Hamid; Arasteh, Bahman; Aghaee, Zahra; Ghanbarzadeh, RezaDaha fazla Influence maximization is the process of identifying a small set of influential nodes from a complex network to maximize the number of activation nodes. Due to the critical issues such as accuracy, stability, and time complexity in selecting the seed set, many studies and algorithms has been proposed in recent decade. However, most of the influence maximization algorithms run into major challenges such as the lack of optimal seed nodes selection, unsuitable influence spread, and high time complexity. In this paper intends to solve the mentioned challenges, by decreasing the search space to reduce the time complexity. Furthermore, It selects the seed nodes with more optimal influence spread concerning the characteristics of a community structure, diffusion capability of overlapped and hub nodes within and between communities, and the probability coefficient of global diffusion. The proposed algorithm, called the FIP algorithm, primarily detects the overlapping communities, weighs the communities, and analyzes the emotional relationships of the community's nodes. Moreover, the search space for choosing the seed nodes is limited by removing insignificant communities. Then, the candidate nodes are generated using the effect of the probability of global diffusion. Finally, the role of important nodes and the diffusion impact of overlapping nodes in the communities are measured to select the final seed nodes. Experimental results in real-world and synthetic networks indicate that the proposed FIP algorithm has significantly outperformed other algorithms in terms of efficiency and runtime.Daha fazla Öğe Maximizing coverage and maintaining connectivity in WSN and decentralized IoT: an efficient metaheuristic-based method for environment-aware node deployment(Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022) Nematzadeh, Sajjad; Torkamanian-Afshar, Mahsa; Seyyedabbasi, Amir; Kiani, FarzadDaha fazla The node deployment problem is a non-deterministic polynomial time (NP-hard). This study proposes a new and efficient method to solve this problem without the need for predefined circumstances about the environments independent of terrain. The proposed method is based on a metaheuristic algorithm and mimics the grey wolf optimizer (GWO) algorithm. In this study, we also suggested an enhanced version of the GWO algorithm to work adaptively in such problems and named it Mutant-GWO (MuGWO). Also, the suggested model ensures connectivity by generating topology graphs and potentially supports data transmission mechanisms. Therefore, the proposed method based on MuGWO can enhance resources utilization, such as reducing the number of nodes, by maximizing the coverage rate and maintaining the connectivity. While most studies assume classical rectangle uniform environments, this study also focuses on custom (environment-aware) maps in line with the importance and requirements of the real world. The motivation of supporting custom maps by this study is that environments can consist of custom shapes with prioritized and critical areas. In this way, environment awareness halts the deployment of nodes in undesired regions and averts resource waste. Besides, novel multi-purpose fitness functions of the proposed method satisfy a convenient approach to calculate costs instead of using complicated processes. Accordingly, this method is suitable for large-scale networks thanks to the capability of the distributed architecture and the metaheuristic-based approach. This study justifies the improvements in the suggested model by presenting comparisons with a Deterministic Grid-based approach and the Original GWO. Moreover, this method outperforms the fruit fly optimization algorithm, bat algorithm (BA), Optimized BA, harmony search, and improved dynamic deployment technique based on genetic algorithm methods in declared scenarios in literature, considering the results of simulations.Daha fazla Öğe WOASCALF: A new hybrid whale optimization algorithm based on sine cosine algorithm and levy flight to solve global optimization problems(Elsevier Ltd, 2022) Seyyedabbasi, AmirDaha fazla In recent years, researchers have been focused on solving optimization problems in order to determine the global optimum. Increasing the dimension of a problem increases its computational cost and complexity as well. In order to solve these types of problems, metaheuristic algorithms are used. The whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is one of the most well-known algorithms based on whale hunting behavior. In this paper, the WOA algorithm is combined with the Sine Cosine Algorithm (SCA), which is based on the principle of trigonometric sine-cosine. The WOA algorithm has superior performance in the exploration phase in contrast with the exploitation phase, whereas the SCA algorithm has weaknesses in the exploitation phase. The levy flight distribution has been used in the hybrid WOA and SCA algorithm to improve these deficiencies. This study introduced a novel hybrid algorithm named WOASCALF. In this algorithm, the search agents' position updates are based on a hybridization of the WOA, SCA, and levy flight. Each of these metaheuristic algorithms has reasonable performance, however, the Levy distribution caused small and large distance leaps in each phase of the algorithm. Thus, it is possible for the appropriate search agent to move in different directions of the search space. The performance of the WOASCALF has been evaluated by the 23 well-known benchmark functions and three real-world engineering problems. The result analysis demonstrates that the exploration ability of WOASCALF has strong superiority over other compared algorithms.Daha fazla Öğe Optimal data transmission and pathfinding for WSN and decentralized IoT systems using I-GWO and Ex-GWO algorithms(Elsevier B.V., 2023) Seyyedabbasi, Amir; Kiani, Farzad; Allahviranloo, Tofigh; Fernandez-Gamiz, Unai; Noeiaghdam, SamadDaha fazla Efficient resource use is a very important issue in wireless sensor networks and decentralized IoT-based systems. In this context, a smooth pathfinding mechanism can achieve this goal. However, since this problem is a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time (NP-hard) problem type, metaheuristic algorithms can be used. This article proposes two new energy-efficient routing methods based on Incremental Grey Wolf Optimization (I-GWO) and Expanded Grey Wolf Optimization (Ex-GWO) algorithms to find optimal paths. Moreover, in this study, a general architecture has been proposed, making it possible for many different metaheuristic algorithms to work in an adaptive manner as well as these algorithms. In the proposed methods, a new fitness function is defined to determine the next hop based on some parameters such as residual energy, traffic, distance, buffer size and hop size. These parameters are important measurements in subsequent node selections. The main purpose of these methods is to minimize traffic, improve fault tolerance in related systems, and increase reliability and lifetime. The two metaheuristic algorithms mentioned above are used to find the best values ??for these parameters. The suggested methods find the best path of any length for the path between any source and destination node. In this study, no ready dataset was used, and the established network and system were run in the simulation environment. As a result, the optimal path has been discovered in terms of the minimum cost of the best paths obtained by the proposed methods. These methods can be very useful in decentralized peer-to-peer and distributed systems. The metrics for performance evaluation and comparisons are i) network lifetime, ii) the alive node ratio in the network, iii) the packet delivery ratio and lost data packets, iv) routing overhead, v) throughput, and vi) convergence behavior. According to the results, the proposed methods generally choose the most suitable and efficient ways with minimum cost. These methods are compared with Genetic Algorithm Based Routing (GAR), Artificial Bee Colony Based routing (ABCbased), Multi-Agent Protocol based on Ant Colony Optimization (MAP-ACO), and Wireless Sensor Networks based on Grey Wolf optimizer. (GWO-WSN) algorithms. The simulation results show that the proposed methods outperform the others.Daha fazla Öğe A source-code aware method for software mutation testing using artificial bee colony algorithm(SPRINGER, 2022) Arasteh, Bahman; Imanzadeh, Parisa; Arasteh, Keyvan; Gharehchopogh, Farhad Soleimanian; Zarei, BagherDaha fazla The effectiveness of software test data relates to the number of found faults by the test data. Software mutation test is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the software test methods and is one of the challenging fields of software engineering. In order to evaluate the capability of test data in finding the program faults, some syntactical changes are made in the program source code to cause faulty program; then, the generated mutants (faulty programs) and original program are executing with the corresponding test data. One of the main drawbacks of mutation testing is its computational cost. Indeed, high execution time of mutation testing is a challenging research problem. Reducing the time and cost of mutation test is the main objective of this paper. In the traditional mutation methods and tools the mutants are injected randomly in each instructions of a program. Meanwhile, in the real-world program, the probability of fault occurrences in the simple locations (instructions and data) of a program is negligible. With respect to the 80-20 rule, 80% of the faults are found in 20% of the fault-prone code of a program. In the first stage of the proposed method, Artificial Bee Colony optimization algorithm is used to identifying the most fault prone paths of a program; in the next stage, the mutation operators (faults) are injected only on the identified fault-prone instructions and data. Regarding the results of conducted experiments on the standard benchmark programs, Compared to existing methods, the proposed method reduces 28.10% of the generated mutants. Reducing the number of generated mutants will reduce the cost of mutation testing. The traditional mutation testing tools (Mujava, Muclipse, Jester, Jumble) can perform the mutation testing with a lower cost using the method presented in this study.Daha fazla Öğe A smart and mechanized agricultural application: From cultivation to harvest(MDPI, 2022) Kiani, Farzad; Randazzo, Giovanni; Yelmen, İlkay; Seyyedabbasi, Amir; Nematzadeh, Sajjad; Anka, Fateme Ayşin; Erenel, FahriDaha fazla Food needs are increasing day by day, and traditional agricultural methods are not responding efficiently. Moreover, considering other important global challenges such as energy sufficiency and migration crises, the need for sustainable agriculture has become essential. For this, an integrated smart and mechanism-application-based model is proposed in this study. This model consists of three stages. In the first phase (cultivation), the proposed model tried to plant crops in the most optimized way by using an automized algorithmic approach (Sand Cat Swarm Optimization algorithm). In the second stage (control and monitoring), the growing processes of the planted crops was tracked and monitored using Internet of Things (IoT) devices. In the third phase (harvesting), a new method (Reverse Ant Colony Optimization), inspired by the ACO algorithm, was proposed for harvesting by autonomous robots. In the proposed model, the most optimal path was analyzed. This model includes maximum profit, maximum quality, efficient use of resources such as human labor and water, the accurate location for planting each crop, the optimal path for autonomous robots, finding the best time to harvest, and consuming the least power. According to the results, the proposed model performs well compared to many well-known methods in the literature.Daha fazla Öğe Sand Cat swarm optimization: a nature-inspired algorithm to solve global optimization problems(Springer, 2022) Seyyedabbasi, Amir; Kiani, FarzadDaha fazla This study proposes a new metaheuristic algorithm called sand cat swarm optimization (SCSO) which mimics the sand cat behavior that tries to survive in nature. These cats are able to detect low frequencies below 2 kHz and also have an incredible ability to dig for prey. The proposed algorithm, inspired by these two features, consists of two main phases (search and attack). This algorithm controls the transitions in the exploration and exploitation phases in a balanced manner and performed well in finding good solutions with fewer parameters and operations. It is carried out by finding the direction and speed of the appropriate movements with the defined adaptive strategy. The SCSO algorithm is tested with 20 well-known along with modern 10 complex test functions of CEC2019 benchmark functions and the obtained results are also compared with famous metaheuristic algorithms. According to the results, the algorithm that found the best solution in 63.3% of the test functions is SCSO. Moreover, the SCSO algorithm is applied to seven challenging engineering design problems such as welded beam design, tension/compression spring design, pressure vessel design, piston lever, speed reducer design, three-bar truss design, and cantilever beam design. The obtained results show that the SCSO performs successfully on convergence rate and in locating all or most of the local/global optima and outperforms other compared methods.Daha fazla Öğe Traxtor: An automatic software test suit generation method inspired by imperialist competitive optimization algorithms(Springer, 2022) Arasteh, Bahman; Hosseini, Seyed Mohamad JavadDaha fazla Software testing refers to a process which improves the quality of software systems and also is one of time and cost consuming stages in software development. Hence, software test automation is regarded as a solution which can facilitate heavy and laborious tasks of testing. Automatic generation of test data with maximum coverage of program branches is regarded as an NP-complete optimization problem. Several heuristic and evolutionary algorithms have been proposed for generating test suits with maximum coverage. Failure to maximally branch coverage, poor success rate in test data generation with maximum coverage and lack of stable results are considered as the major drawbacks of previous methods. Enhancing the coverage rate of the generated test data, enhancing the success rate in generating the tests data with maximum coverage and enhancing the stability and speed criteria are the major purposes of the present study. In this study, an effective method (Traxtor) is proposed to automatically generate tests data by using imperialist competitive algorithms (ICA) optimization algorithms. The proposed method is aimed at generating test data with maximum branch coverage in a limited amount of time. The results obtained from executing a wide range of experiments indicated that the proposed algorithm, with 99.99% average coverage, 99.94% success rate, 2.77 average generation and 0.12 s average time outperformed the other algorithms.Daha fazla