Biobanking of vegetable genetic resources by in vitro conservation and cryopreservation
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CitationRuta, C., Lambardi, M., & Ozudogru, E. A. (2020). Biobanking of vegetable genetic resources by in vitro conservation and cryopreservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 1-38.
Today, application of in vitro culture by means of slow growth storage of shoot cultures and cryopreservation of organs, tissues and cells in liquid nitrogen presents a remarkable strategic tool to support medium- and long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. Over the last 30 years, considerable progresses have been made in the development of both methods that are currently considered as ex situ conservation strategies, complementary to traditional seed banks and in-field clonal collections. Efficient protocols were developed for the conservation of a large number of crops, including strategically-important vegetables, such as garlic, artichoke, asparagus, cassava, Jerusalem artichoke, mint, potato, sweet potato, chicory, taro, thyme and yam. As a consequence, more than 45,000 accessions of vegetable crops are maintained in 22 genetic resources conservation centers (biobanks), located in 16 countries and 6 continents (Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania, North and South America). Approximately 4/5 of these accessions are maintained in vitro by means of slow growth storage of shoot cultures, but cryopreservation is also constantly growing, with almost 8300 vegetable accessions being stored in liquid nitrogen at − 196 °C.