Structural insights into the NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase mechanism revealed from the NADH complex and the formate NAD+ ternary complex of the Chaetomium thermophilum enzyme
Isupov, Michail N.
De Rose, Simone Antonio
Benninghoff, Jens C.
Bi̇nay, Baris Is
Littlechild, Jennifer Ann
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CitationYilmazer, B., Isupov, M. N., De Rose, S. A., Bulut, H., Benninghoff, J. C., Binay, B., & Littlechild, J. A. (2020). Structural insights into the NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase mechanism revealed from the NADH complex and the formate NAD+ ternary complex of the Chaetomium thermophilum enzyme. Journal of Structural Biology, 107657.
The removal of carbon dioxide from the waste streams of industrial processes is a major challenge for creation of a sustainable circular economy. This makes the synthesis of formate from CO2 by NAD+ dependent formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) an attractive process for this purpose. The efficiency of this reaction is however low and to achieve a viable industrial process an optimised engineered enzyme needs to be developed. In order to understand the detailed enzymatic mechanism of catalysis structures of different cofactor and substrate complexes of the FDH from the thermophilic filamentous fungus, Chaetomium thermophilum have been determined to 1.2–1.3 Å resolution. The substrate formate is shown to be held by four hydrogen bonds in the FDH catalytic site within the ternary complex with substrate and NAD+and a secondary formate binding site is observed in crystals soaked with substrate. Water molecules are excluded from the FDH catalytic site when the substrate is bound. The angle between the plane of the NAD+ cofactor pyridine ring and the plane of the formate molecule is around 27°. Additionally, structures of a FDH mutant enzyme, N120C, in complex with the reduced form of the cofactor have also been determined both in the presence and absence of formate bound at the secondary site. These structures provide further understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this fungal enzyme.