Olfactory ensheathing cells: unique glial cells promising for treatments of spinal cord injury
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CitationUrsavas, S., Darici, H., & Karaoz, E. (2021). Olfactory ensheathing cells: Unique glial cells promising for treatments of spinal cord injury. Journal of neuroscience research, 10.1002/jnr.24817. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24817
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is generally the consequence of physical damage, which may result in devastating consequences such as paraplegia or paralysis. Some certain candidates for SCI repair are olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which are unique glial cells located in the transition region of the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system and perform neuron regeneration in the olfactory system throughout life. Culture studies have clarified many properties of OECs, but their mechanisms of actions are not fully understood. Successful results achieved in animal models showcased that SCI treatment with OEC transplants is suitable for clinical tri-als. However, clinical trials are limited by difficulties like cell acquisition for autograft transplantation. Despite the improvements in both animal and clinical studies so far, there is still insufficient information about the mechanism of actions, adverse effects, proper application methods, effective subtypes, and sources of cells. This review summarizes pre- clinical and clinical literature focused on the cellular characterization of both OECs in vitro and post- transplantation. We highlight the roles and effects of OECs on (a) the injury- induced glial milieu, (b) neuronal growth/regeneration, and (c) functional recovery after injury. Due to the shown benefits of OECs with in vitro and animal studies and a limited number of clinical trials, where safety and effectivity were shown, it is necessary to conduct more studies on OECs to obtain effective and feasible treatment methods.