Effects of TNF inhibitors and an IL12/23 inhibitor on changes in body weight and adipokine levels in psoriasis patients: a 48-week comparative study
Akaslan, Tahsin Cagdas
Gulcan, Aliye Sevdem
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CitationOnsun, N., Akaslan, T. Ç., Sallahoglu, K., Gülcan, A. S., Bulut, H., & Yabacı, A. (2021). Effects of TNF inhibitors and an IL12/23 inhibitor on changes in body weight and adipokine levels in psoriasis patients: A 48-week comparative study. The Journal of dermatological treatment, 1–16. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546634.2021.1901845
Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines are thought to be a link between psoriasis and obesity. Leptin, adiponectin, and omentin are bioactive adipokines thought to play a role in both metabolic comorbidities and inflammation. Anti-tumour necrosis factor alfa (anti-TNF-α) agents are effective for psoriasis treatment, although significant weight gain has been reported during anti-TNF-α therapy. The interleukin 12/23 (IL 12/23) inhibitor ustekinumab is also effective for psoriasis treatment. We compared the effects of three anti-TNF-α drugs and an IL-12/23 inhibitor on adipokines and weight gain during treatment. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 80 patients (37 women, 43 men) with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis whose age and weight were matched. The patients were divided into four equal groups: etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, and ustekinumab treatment groups. Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score, body weight (muscle and fat compartments), and leptin, adiponectin, and omentin levels were evaluated at baseline and weeks 4, 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Results: There were no differences between drug groups in terms of weight parameters or biochemical parameters at baseline. At the end of 48 weeks, there was significant weight gain in the adalimumab group. Patients who received infliximab showed significant weight gain by week 12, but in the following weeks they returned to their initial weight. Body weight reached a maximum level by week 12 in patients using etanercept, but they lost weight in the following weeks and finished the study below their initial weight. Patients using ustekinumab did not demonstrate significant weight change during the 48 weeks except at week 12. At the end of week 48, PASI75 (improvement in PASI ≥75%) response rates were approximately 85% for the ustekinumab group, 80% for the adalimumab group, 75% for the infliximab group, and 50% for the etanercept group. Leptin, adiponectin, and omentin levels were higher in the ustekinumab group at all weeks except baseline. The lowest levels were observed in the etanercept group. The treatment response rate was also lower in the etanercept group. Limitations: We did not evaluate visfatin and resistin levels, insulin sensitivity, and cardiovascular risk that may be associated with weight gain and adipokine levels. Conclusions: Unlike TNF inhibitors, ustekinumab does not cause significant weight changes and it increases adipokine levels more than TNF inhibitors. Adipokine levels seem to be related to the treatment response.