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dc.contributor.authorGardiner, Gwendolyn
dc.contributor.authorLee, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorBaranski, Erica N.
dc.contributor.authorFunder, David C.
dc.contributor.authorBeramendi, Maite Regina
dc.contributor.authorBastian, Brock
dc.contributor.authorNeubauer, Aljoscha C.
dc.contributor.authorKarakus Akalin, Pelin
dc.date.accessioned2021-03-16T12:33:04Z
dc.date.available2021-03-16T12:33:04Z
dc.date.issued2020en_US
dc.identifier.citationGardiner, G., Lee, D., Baranski, E., Funder, D., & International Situations Project. (2020). Happiness around the world: A combined etic-emic approach across 63 countries. PloS one, 15(12), e0242718.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242718
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12713/1587
dc.descriptionPubMed ID: 33296388en_US
dc.description.abstractWhat does it mean to be happy? The vast majority of cross-cultural studies on happiness have employed a Western-origin, or "WEIRD" measure of happiness that conceptualizes it as a self-centered (or "independent"), high-arousal emotion. However, research from Eastern cultures, particularly Japan, conceptualizes happiness as including an interpersonal aspect emphasizing harmony and connectedness to others. Following a combined emicetic approach (Cheung, van de Vijver & Leong, 2011), we assessed the cross-cultural applicability of a measure of independent happiness developed in the US (Subjective Happiness Scale; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999) and a measure of interdependent happiness developed in Japan (Interdependent Happiness Scale; Hitokoto & Uchida, 2015), with data from 63 countries representing 7 sociocultural regions. Results indicate that the schema of independent happiness was more coherent in more WEIRD countries. In contrast, the coherence of interdependent happiness was unrelated to a country's "WEIRD-ness." Reliabilities of both happiness measures were lowest in African and Middle Eastern countries, suggesting these two conceptualizations of happiness may not be globally comprehensive. Overall, while the two measures had many similar correlates and properties, the self-focused concept of independent happiness is "WEIRD-er" than interdependent happiness, suggesting cross-cultural researchers should attend to both conceptualizations.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.isversionof10.1371/journal.pone.0242718en_US
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessen_US
dc.titleHappiness around the world: a combined etic-emic approach across 63 countriesen_US
dc.typearticleen_US
dc.contributor.departmentİstinye Üniversitesi, İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Fakültesi, Psikoloji Bölümüen_US
dc.contributor.authorID0000-0003-1633-5692en_US
dc.contributor.institutionauthorKarakus Akalin, Pelin
dc.identifier.volume15en_US
dc.identifier.issue12en_US
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONEen_US
dc.relation.publicationcategoryMakale - Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi - Kurum Öğretim Elemanıen_US


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