COVID-19-associated mucormycosis: case report and systematic review
Sen, Elif Itir
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CitationDilek, A., Ozaras, R., Ozkaya, S., Sunbul, M., Sen, E. I., & Leblebicioglu, H. (2021). COVID-19-associated mucormycosis: Case report and systematic review. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 102148.
Background: Increasing number of patients with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis have been reported, especially from India recently. We have described a patient with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis and, searched and analyzed current medical literature to delineate the characteristics of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Method: We reported a patient developed mucormycosis during post-COVID period. We searched literature to describe the incidence, clinical features, and outcomes of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Demographic features, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment and outcome were analyzed. Results: We describe a 54-year-old male, hospitalized due to severe COVID-19 pneumonia. He was given long-term, high doses of systemic steroids. He developed maxillo-fascial mucormycosis and died of sepsis. Our literature search found 30 publications describing 100 patients including present case report. The majority (n = 68) were reported from India. 76% were male. The most commonly seen risk factors were corticosteroid use (90.5%), diabetes (79%), and hypertension (34%). Also, excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics were noted in cases. Most frequent involvements were rhino-orbital (50%), followed by rhino-sinusal (17%), and rhino-orbito-cerebral (15%). Death was reported as 33 out of 99 patients (33,3%). Conclusions: Steroid use, diabetes, environmental conditions, excessive use of antibiotics, and hypoxia are main risk factors. Despite medical and surgical treatment, mortality rate is high. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to improve the conditions facilitating the emergence of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis.