Overt hypogonadism is a cardiovascular risk factor in type 2 diabetic males: an observational study
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CitationOguz, A., Sahin, M., Ulgen, C., Uyan, M., & Gul, K. (2021). Overt hypogonadism is a cardiovascular risk factor in type 2 diabetic males: An observational study. Andrologia, e14271. Advance online publication.
We aimed to evaluate the effects of hypogonadism on metabolic and chronic complications in type 2 diabetic males. 261 nonobese males with type 2 diabetes aged 18-70 were involved in the study. Hypononadal males were divided into 2 groups as overt hypogonadism (total testosterone≤230 ng/dl) and borderline hypogonadism (230-345 ng/dl). The control group involved eugonadal diabetic males. Micro-macrovascular complications were recorded. 101 patients had hypogonadism (38.7%), and 160 patients were eugonadal (61.3%). Microvascular complication rate was not different, but macrovascular complication rate was significantly higher in hypogonadal males (42.6%/31.3%, p = 0.042). Optimal glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) achievement(<7%) was significantly lower in hypogonadal patients (20.8%/31.3%, p = 0.043). Poor glycaemic control (HbA1c≥7%), presence of microvascular complication and increased triglyceride levels were independent risk factors for hypogonadism (OR: 1.5, p = 0.044;OR:3.89,p = 0.025 and OR: 1.0, p = 0.016 respectively). Overt hypogonadism, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and severe hypoglycaemia were independent risk factors for macrovascular complications (OR: 1.0, p = 0.027; OR:2.6, p = 0.002; OR: 1.8, p = 0.047 and OR: 1.0, p = 0.007 respectively), diabetes duration (≥5 years) and poor glycaemic control for microvascular complication (OR: 1.0, p = 0.031 and OR:2.0, p = 0.028). As a result, hypogonadism is frequent among diabetic males and poor glycaemic control may be an important contributing factor. Furthermore overt hypogonadism is an important cardiovascular risk marker. Therefore, ensuring eugonadism in diabetic patients may positively affect both glycaemic control and complications.