Targeted regulation of autophagy using nanoparticles: New insight into cancer therapy
YazarPaskeh, Mahshid Deldar Abad
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KünyePaskeh, M. D. A., Entezari, M., Clark, C., Zabolian, A., Ranjbar, E., Farahani, M. V., ... & Łos, M. J. (2022). Targeted regulation of autophagy using nanoparticles: New insight into cancer therapy. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease, 166326.
Normal cells depend on autophagy to maintain cellular homeostasis by recycling damaged organelles and misfolded proteins and degrading toxic agents. Similar to apoptosis, targeting autophagy has been under attention in cancer therapy. However, autophagy has both pro-survival and pro-death functions in tumors, and its targeting requires further elucidation. The current review focuses on using nanoparticles for targeting autophagy in cancer treatment. Nanocarriers can deliver autophagy regulators along with chemotherapeutic agents leading to intracellular accumulation in cancer cells and synergistic cancer therapy. Furthermore, genetic tools such as siRNA and shRNA can be used for targeting molecular components that regulate autophagy, such as the ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 complex. A number of nanostructures, such as gold and zinc oxide nanoparticles, can be used to enhance oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis and autophagy, reducing cancer progression. Further, using nanoparticles to modulate autophagy potentiates the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin and gefitinib during chemotherapy. Polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based nanostructures and carbon-based nanomaterials are among other nanoparticles capable of regulating autophagy in cancer cells. Of note, various regulatory components of autophagy such as ATGs, Beclin-1 and LC3-II can be affected by nanomaterials. Based on the role of nanomaterial-induced autophagy as pro-survival or pro-death, further targeting can potentiate the fight against cancer cells. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.