An experimental evaluation of CdO/PbO-B2O3 glasses containing neodymium oxide: Structure, electrical conductivity, and gamma-ray resistance
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CitationHesham M.H. Zakaly, Shams A.M. Issa, H.O. Tekin, Ali Badawi, H.A. Saudi, A.M.A. Henaish, Y.S. Rammah, An experimental evaluation of CdO/PbO-B2O3 glasses containing neodymium oxide: Structure, electrical conductivity, and gamma-ray resistance, Materials Research Bulletin.
A comprehensive set of experimental measurements was carried out to investigate the influence of Nd3+ ions on the structure, electrical conductivity, and gamma-ray protection of CdO/PbO-B2O3 glasses containing neodymium oxide with the chemical formula 20CdO/20PbO/(60-x)B2O3/xNd2O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 4 wt%) (5.034-5.232 g/cm3). Raman spectra have been obtained over a range of 1600-180 cm−1, and electrical conductivity (σ) has been measured at frequencies of 0.120, 1, 10, and 100 KHz, as well as at other frequencies. In this study, gamma-ray attenuation has been studied at various gamma-ray energies (ranging from 0.081 to 2.614 MeV). The results revealed that the PbO in the investigated glass networks fills the interspaces of [BO3] units with Pb2+ ions, therefore serving as a network member. In general, it was found that (σ) of the examined glasses falls as temperature increases, reaching its lowest value at the composition's transition temperature. Above this transition temperature, conductivity rises. Using 0.662 MeV, the studied samples exhibited experimental linear attenuation coefficients (μexp.) of 0.3369 cm−1, 0.3401 cm−1, 0.3434 cm−1, 0.3467 cm−1, and 0.3501 cm−1 (for the Nd-0.0, Nd-1.0, Nd-0.2, Nd-0.3, and Nd-4.0 glasses, respectively). With respect to the half value thickness (T1/2) and mean free path (λ), the Nd-4.0 sample has the lowest values at all of the gamma-ray energies tested. According to these results, the Nd-4.0 glass sample exhibits higher attenuation capabilities against ionizing radiation when compared to the other samples. © 2022