(Nano)platforms in bladder cancer therapy: Challenges and opportunities
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CitationAshrafizadeh, M., Zarrabi, A., Karimi-Maleh, H., Taheriazam, A., Mirzaei, S., Hashemi, M., . . . Ma, Z. (2022). (Nano)platforms in bladder cancer therapy: Challenges and opportunities. Bioengineering and Translational Medicine, doi:10.1002/btm2.10353
Urological cancers are among the most common malignancies around the world. In particular, bladder cancer severely threatens human health due to its aggressive and heterogeneous nature. Various therapeutic modalities have been considered for the treatment of bladder cancer although its prognosis remains unfavorable. It is perceived that treatment of bladder cancer depends on an interdisciplinary approach combining biology and engineering. The nanotechnological approaches have been introduced in the treatment of various cancers, especially bladder cancer. The current review aims to emphasize and highlight possible applications of nanomedicine in eradication of bladder tumor. Nanoparticles can improve efficacy of drugs in bladder cancer therapy through elevating their bioavailability. The potential of genetic tools such as siRNA and miRNA in gene expression regulation can be boosted using nanostructures by facilitating their internalization and accumulation at tumor sites and cells. Nanoparticles can provide photodynamic and photothermal therapy for ROS overgeneration and hyperthermia, respectively, in the suppression of bladder cancer. Furthermore, remodeling of tumor microenvironment and infiltration of immune cells for the purpose of immunotherapy are achieved through cargo-loaded nanocarriers. Nanocarriers are mainly internalized in bladder tumor cells by endocytosis, and proper design of smart nanoparticles such as pH-, redox-, and light-responsive nanocarriers is of importance for targeted tumor therapy. Bladder cancer biomarkers can be detected using nanoparticles for timely diagnosis of patients. Based on their accumulation at the tumor site, they can be employed for tumor imaging. The clinical translation and challenges are also covered in current review. © 2022 The Authors. Bioengineering & Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.