Immunology meets bioengineering: Improving the effectiveness of glioblastoma immunotherapy
Behrooz, Amir Barzegar
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CitationFekrirad Z, Barzegar Behrooz A, Ghaemi S, Khosrojerdi A, Zarepour A, Zarrabi A, Arefian E, Ghavami S. Immunology Meets Bioengineering: Improving the Effectiveness of Glioblastoma Immunotherapy. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Jul 29;14(15):3698. doi: 10.3390/cancers14153698. PMID: 35954362; PMCID: PMC9367505.
Glioblastoma (GBM) therapy has seen little change over the past two decades. Surgical excision followed by radiation and chemotherapy is the current gold standard treatment. Immunotherapy techniques have recently transformed many cancer treatments, and GBM is now at the forefront of immunotherapy research. GBM immunotherapy prospects are reviewed here, with an emphasis on immune checkpoint inhibitors and oncolytic viruses. Various forms of nanomaterials to enhance immunotherapy effectiveness are also discussed. For GBM treatment and immunotherapy, we outline the specific properties of nanomaterials. In addition, we provide a short overview of several 3D (bio)printing techniques and their applications in stimulating the GBM microenvironment. Lastly, the susceptibility of GBM cancer cells to the various immunotherapy methods will be addressed.