Does the clamping method in local and systemic TXA applications in total knee arthroplasty change the game?: a retrospective comparative cohort study
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CitationTuran, K., Muratoǧlu, O. G., Ergün, T., Çabuk, H., & Ertürer, R. E. (2022). Does the clamping method in local and systemic TXA applications in total knee arthroplasty change the game?: A retrospective comparative cohort study. Medicine (United States), 101(38), E30823. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000030823
Many different methods and drain clamping periods have been described in systemic and local tranexamic acid (TXA) applications, and the superiority of the methods to each other has not been clearly demonstrated. The method of local infusion in combined TXA applications may not alter the Hb drop or total or hidden blood loss. We aim to compare two different combined TXA application methods. We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty between 2018 and 2021. Patients over 40 years of age who underwent TKA for degenerative knee arthritis were included in the study. Unicondylar, revision, or bilateral arthroplasties and patients with the cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease were excluded from the study. All patients in the study received 1 g TXA intravenously half an hour before the incision. For the first group, 1 g TXA was given intra-articularly at the drain site after closure, and the clamp was kept closed for 1 hour. In the second group, the drain was clamped for an additional 6 hours, and a 1 g intravenous dose was administered at the 5th hour postoperatively. No local applications were used in the control group. Total, hidden, and visible blood loss (total blood loss, hidden blood loss, visible blood loss), postoperative decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit level (ΔHgb, ΔHtc), blood transfusion rates, and hospital stay durations were evaluated. There were 72 patients in the first group, 52 in the second, and 58 in control. A total of 37 patients received one or more blood transfusions postoperatively, and there was no statistical difference in the need for blood transfusions between the groups (P = .255). Although a statistically significant difference (P = .001) in total blood loss, hidden blood loss, visible blood loss and ΔHgb values was observed between the groups, the difference between the first and second groups was insignificant (P = .512). The duration of hospital stay was observed to be less in the first and second groups (P = .024). Local and systemic TXA applications were observed to be more effective than only systemic applications in reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty, regardless of the local method.