The gut microbiome and female health
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CitationSiddiqui, R., Makhlouf, Z., Alharbi, A. M., Alfahemi, H., & Khan, N. A. (2022). The Gut Microbiome and Female Health. Biology, 11(11), 1683.
Simple Summary A plethora of studies have highlighted the profound role of the gut microbiome in human health. However, there is a lack of studies on female health. Given that females may be more likely to be affected by some ailments such as osteoarthritis, heart disease, cancer, and anxiety, it is imperative to study the effect of the gut microbiome and its role in female health. It is evident that the presence/ratio of microbial species is altered in polycystic ovarian syndrome, cancer, pregnancy, and menopause. Thus, potential probiotics should be developed and the administration of certain bacterial species should be considered, as novel independent or adjunct therapies for various female-related pathologies. Strategies such as the modulation of the gut microbiome via diet and through supplementation with pre/pro/postbiotics in various female health-related issues should be undertaken. The possession of two X chromosomes may come with the risk of various illnesses, females are more likely to be affected by osteoarthritis, heart disease, and anxiety. Given the reported correlations between gut microbiome dysbiosis and various illnesses, the female gut microbiome is worthy of exploration. Herein, we discuss the composition of the female gut microbiota and its dysbiosis in pathologies affecting the female population. Using PubMed, we performed a literature search, using key terms, namely: gut microbiome, estrogen, menopause, polycystic ovarian syndrome, pregnancy, and menstruation. In polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the abundance of Bacteroides vulgatus, Firmicutes, Streptococcus, and the ratio of Escherichia/Shigella was found to be increased while that of Tenericutes ML615J-28, Tenericutes 124-7, Akkermansia, Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroidetes S24-7 was reduced. In breast cancer, the abundance of Clostridiales was enhanced, while in cervical cancer, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and Dialister were enhanced but Bacteroides, Alistipes, and members of Lachnospiracea, were decreased. In ovarian cancer, Prevotella abundance was increased. Interestingly, the administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus fermentum ameliorated PCOS symptoms while that of a mix of Bifidobacterium lactis W51, Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Lactobacillus brevis W63, Bifidobacterium lactis W52, Lactobacillus salivarius W24, Lactobacillus acidophilus W37, Lactococcus lactis W19, Lactobacillus casei W56, and Lactococcus lactis W58 alleviated vascular malfunction and arterial stiffness in obese postmenopausal women, and finally, while further research is needed, Prevotella maybe protective against postmenopausal bone mass loss. As several studies report the therapeutic potential of probiotics and since the gut microbiota of certain female pathological states has been relatively characterized, we speculate that the administration of certain bacterial species as probiotics is warranted, as novel independent or adjunct therapies for various female pathologies.