Calcified or ossified chronic subdural hematoma: a systematic review of 114 cases reported during last century with a demonstrative case report
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CitationTurgut, M., Akhaddar, A., & Turgut, A. T. (2020). Calcified or Ossified Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review of 114 Cases Reported During Last Century with a Demonstrative Case Report. World neurosurgery, 134, 240-263.
OBJECTIVE: Calcified or ossified chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), characterized by slowly progressing neurologic symptoms, is a rarely seen entity that may remain asymptomatic for many years. Management of CSDH has improved dramatically in recent years as a result of advances in diagnostic tools, but there is still some controversy regarding the optimal treatment strategy. METHODS: In this systematic review, PRISMA guidelines were followed to query existing online databases between January 1930 and December 2018. We found a total of 88 articles containing 114 cases of calcified or ossified CSDH, comprising 83 patients operated on and 31 not operated on. RESULTS: In this study, there were 78 males and 29 females (7 with unreported gender) from 25 countries, ages ranging from 4 months to 86 years (mean, 33.7 years), with CSDH caused by head trauma in 33.3%, shunting for hydrocephalus in 27.2%, or after cranial surgery in 4.4%. The duration of symptoms ranged from acute onset to 20 years, with a mean of 24.1 months. Imaging techniques such as radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used, with pathologic confirmation of CSDH and complete recovery in 56.4% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of calcified or ossified CSDH is high in certain countries, including the United States, Japan, and Turkey, with a steady increase in recent years. The therapy of choice is surgery in these patients and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis at presentation because of its infrequency and variable clinical manifestation, after shunting in children or head trauma in adults.