Venous leg symptoms in patients with varicocele: a multicenter assessment study (VEIN-TURKEY study)
Akbaba, Kaan Turker
Kilic, Suleyman Sirri
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CitationOzturk, S., Akbaba, K. T., Kilic, S., Cicek, T., Peskircioglu, L., Tandogan, I., … Yetkin, E. (2019). Venous leg symptoms in patients with varicocele: A multicenter assessment study (VEIN-TURKEY study). PHLEBOLOGY, 34(2), 128–136. https://doi.org/10.1177/0268355518777110
Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate chronic venous disease symptoms by using the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study-Quality of Life/Symptoms (VEINES-QoL/Sym) questionnaire in varicocele patients. Material and methods The study was designed as a prospective, case controlled study and conducted in four hospitals from Turkey. A total of 600 patients who admitted to urology outpatient clinic were enrolled to the study. After the exclusion of 44 patients who do not match the inclusion criteria, the remaining 556 patients were examined for the presence and grade of varicocele and subsequently examined clinically for the presence of chronic venous disease findings. Finally, patients were asked to answer the VEINES-Sym questionnaire consisting of 10 items. All patients' demographic parameters, cardiovascular risk factors, other co-morbid diseases and drug usage were noted. Results Patients were classified into two groups: varicocele (+) group (n=269) and varicocele (-) group (n=287). VEINES-Sym scores of varicocele patients were lower compared to patients without varicocele (41.415.21, 43.19 +/- 3.22, respectively, p<0.001). Grades of varicocele significantly but inversely correlated with VEINES-Sym score (r=0, -206, p=0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that presence of varicocele irrespective of grading significantly and independently associated with the presence of aching (odds ratio: 2.054, 95% confidence interval: 1.265-3.338, p=0.004) and throbbing (odds ratio: 2.586, 95% confidence interval: 1.353-4.943, p=0.004). Conclusion Varicocele patients have lower VEINES-Sym scores compared to patients without varicocele and this finding is inversely correlated with the degree of the varicocele. This association supports the hypothesis that there may be a systemic vessel wall abnormality in venous disease patients. Patients with symptoms related to vascular dilatation in any territory may deserve to be assessed systematically with the support of further clinical studies.