Is there a gender gap in secondary prevention of coronary artery disease in Turkey?
Cakmak, Huseyin Altug
Catakoglu, Alp Burak
Kalkan, Ali Kemal
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CitationKoçyiğit, D., Tokgözoğlu, L., Kayıkçıoğlu, M., Altay, S., Aydoğdu, S., Barçın, C., ... & Ergene, O. (2018). Is there a gender gap in secondary prevention of coronary artery disease in Turkey?. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars, 46(8), 683-691.
Objective: It has been reported that women receive fewer preventive recommendations regarding pharmacological treatment, lifestyle modifications, and cardiac rehabilitation compared with men who have a similar risk profile. This study was an investigation of the impact of gender on cardiovascular risk profile and secondary prevention measures for coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Turkish population. Methods: Statistical analyses were based on the European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE)-IV cross-sectional survey data obtained from 17 centers in Turkey. Male and female patients, aged 18 to 80 years, who were hospitalized for a first or recurrent coronary event (coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous coronary intervention, acute myocardial infarction, or acute myocardial ischemia) were eligible. Results: A total of 88 (19.7%) females and 358 males (80.3%) were included. At the time of the index event, the females were significantly older (p=0.003) and had received less formal education (p<0.001). Non-smoking status (p<0.001) and higher levels of depression and anxiety (both p<0.001) were more common in the female patients. At the time of the interview, conducted between 6 and 36 months after the index event, central obesity (p<0.001) and obesity (p=0.004) were significantly more common in females. LDL-C, HDL-C or HbA1c levels did not differ significantly between genders. The fasting blood glucose level was significantly higher (p=0.003) and hypertension was more common in females (p=0.001). There was no significant difference in an increase in physical activity or weight loss after the index event between genders, and there was no significant difference between genders regarding continuity of antiplatelet, statin, beta blocker or ACEi/ARB II receptor blocker usage (p>0.05). Conclusion: Achievement of ideal body weight, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure targets was lower in women despite similar reported medication use. This highlights the importance of the implementation of lifestyle measures and adherence to medications in women.