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  • Öğe
    The stabilisation of low-fat mayonnaise by whey protein isolate-microbial exopolysaccharides (weissella confusa W-16 strain) complex
    (Wiley, 2023) Yalmancı, Dilara; Dertli, Enes; Tekin Çakmak, Zeynep Hazal; Karasu, Salih
    This study aims to evaluate the fat-substituting feature of the complex of whey protein isolate (WPI) and dextran structure exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesised by Weissella confusa JCM 1093 strains in mayonnaise samples. The flow behaviour, frequency sweep and three interval thixotropy test properties of the samples were compared with the control groups. Thermal loop test was applied to determine the emulsion stability of the samples. Oxidative stability was tested with OXITEST, and induction period values were compared. K values of the samples varied between 20.05 and 169.13 Pa.s(n) and the n values vary between 0.133 and 0.383. Samples showed pseudoplastic behaviour (n < 1). G' of all samples is greater than G, meaning that all samples showed a solid-like behaviour like conventional mayonnaise. The complex of 2% EPS and 5% WPI provided a solid structure and improved the physical stability of low-fat mayonnaise. The results showed that the samples had high physical stability when they experienced thermal stress at low and high temperatures. As a result, the WPI and EPS complex can be used as a fat replacer for improving the rheological properties, emulsion and oxidative stability in low-fat mayonnaise samples.
  • Öğe
    The effect of the use of salep powder obtained from different wild orchid species in Turkey on the rheological, thermal, and sensory properties of ice cream
    (Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, SBCTA, 2023) Arslan, Ayşen; Sağdıç, Osman; Karasu, Salih; Tekin Çakmak, Zeynep Hazal
    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of salep species grown in different regions of Turkey on the rheological and microstructural properties of ice cream mix and the thermal and sensory properties of ice cream. For this purpose, ten different types of salep grown in different regions (Mersin, Yozgat, Muğla, Kahramanmaraş, Adana, Van, Muş) in the natural microflora of Turkey were used in a formulation of an ice cream mix. The flow behavior, frequency sweep, and 3-ITT rheological properties of ice cream mixes were studied. All samples showed shear thinning, viscoelastic solid-like, and recoverable character. The K and n values for the ice cream mixes were determined as 0.03-35.08 Pasn and 0.33-0.80, respectively, and significantly differed according to salep varieties (p < 0.05). The zeta potential values of ice cream mix samples ranged from-25.87 mV to-33.95 mV and were significantly affected by salep varieties (p < 0.05). The use of different salep varieties significantly affected the thermal properties of ice cream such as freezing point temperature (Tf), temperature range (?T), and enthalpy of fusion (?Hf). In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the use of different salep varieties can significantly affect the rheological, thermal, and sensory properties of ice cream, and the selection of salep varieties may be vital for the desired quality of ice cream. © 2023, Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, SBCTA. All rights reserved.
  • Öğe
    Milling performance and bread-making aptitude of the new soft kernel durum wheat variety faridur
    (WILEY, 2022) Pasqualone, Antonella; Palombieri, Samuela; Köksel, Hamit; Summo, Carmine; De Vita, Pasquale; Sestili, Francesco
    Faridur is the first 'soft kernel' durum wheat variety released in Italy. This variety has not yet been evaluated for its end-use quality. In the present study, the milling performance (using two different mills) and bread-making ability of Faridur were compared with Svevo. An effect of the mill type on flour properties was observed, with the Chopin CD1 mill leading to finer particle size, higher starch damage and water absorption than Buhler MLU 202. Protein and gluten content was significantly higher in Faridur, but gluten quality was lower, as indicated by alveograph and farinograph analyses. The softer nature of Faridur facilitated milling, reducing energy consumption and starch damage. The baking test led to a compact product, with low specific volume, needing adjustments in processing and formulation. As energy saving has become a key competitive factor in the milling sector, Faridur has potential for expanding the use of durum wheat.
  • Öğe
    The relationship of food addiction with emotional control and socio-cultural factors in university employees
    (GALENOS PUBL HOUSE, 2022) Reis, Elif; Çakır, Gülistan; Demirkaya, Havvanur; Kuzu, Neslihan; Atay, Türkan; Özenoğlu, Aliye
    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between food addiction in university employees with emotion control, sociodemographic and sociocultural factors and social media use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 213 administrative and academic staff working at a foundation university. The data was collected by a demographic fact sheet, the Social Media Addiction Scale-Adult Form (SMAS-AF), the Courtauld Emotion Control Scale (CECS) and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 36 +/- 10 years and 65.7% of them were women. Of all the participants, 4.7% (n=10) were found to be addicted to food and 80% (n=8) of these were women. A significant inverse relationship was found between SMAS-AF and CECS total scores. As social media addiction increases, emotion control decreases. Among those with food addiction, the proportion of those with a low-income levels was greater compared to any other income group. There was no significant relationship between food addiction and gender, age, social media addiction, or emotion control. A significant negative correlation was found between age and the total score of social media addiction. CONCLUSION: In our study, the prevalence of food addicts among university employees was low. The fact that the rate of the food addicts was higher in women and those who were single and those who had low-income levels reveals that gender, marital status and income levels are important socio-cultural factors. While no relationship was found between food addiction and emotion control or social media addiction, higher scores of SMAS-AF were noted in single and low-income users.
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    Quality and nutritional characteristics of durum wheats grown in anatolia
    (2022) Canay, Ferda Unsal; Sanal, Turgay; Köksel, Hamit
    This study aimed to determine the quality and nutritional characteristics of durum wheat varieties commonly grown in Anatolia and detect changes in nutritional properties due to milling. There were significant differences in hectoliter weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness index, kernel size, ash, protein, beta-carotene contents, and SDS sedimentation values. The correlation between ash and phytic acid contents was significant (r=0.953). Over 60% reduction was observed in semolina samples' phytic acid content compared to wheat. There were significant correlations between TDF and phytic acid contents in the durum wheat and semolina samples. Although the Zn, Fe, P, Ca, and B concentrations of the wheat samples grown in Central Anatolia were higher than those grown in South-eastern Anatolia, there was an opposite trend in their semolina samples. The results might benefit breeders in improving durum wheat's technological and nutritional quality.
  • Öğe
    Comparison of mineral concentration and bioavailability of various modern and old bread wheat varieties grown in anatolia in around one century
    (SPRINGER, 2022) Cetiner, Buket; Ozdemir, Bayram; Yazar, Selami; Köksel, Hamit
    The main aim of this study was to compare mineral and protein contents of modern and old bread wheat varieties and Anatolian landraces to determine whether there have been important alterations in properties examined in around one century (since the 1930s). Mineral bioavailabilities of whole wheat breads of these wheats were also compared. The einkorn sample (landrace: Siyez) had the highest protein content (16.8%) in Ankara location among all modern and old wheats and landraces. The highest mineral contents were generally determined in landraces among all genotypes grown in Ankara location. The landraces had higher mean grain Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, and Zn concentrations ( than the modern wheat varieties. Karakilcik (landrace) had the highest Ca (1248), Cu (5.62), Fe (44.48), K (4826), Mg (1531), and P (4685) concentrations ( Siyez (landrace) had the highest Cu (5.68), while Sunter (landrace) had the highest K (4950) and Zn (33.59) concentrations ( Old wheat varieties had the highest Ca, Fe, and Mn bioavailabilities (in vitro), while modern wheat varieties had the highest Cu and S bioavailabilities in their whole wheat breads. Hence, old and modern wheat varieties and landraces could be used for enhancing the genetic basis of breeding programs in different aspects.
  • Öğe
    Antioxidant capacity and profiles of phenolic acids in various genotypes of purple wheat
    (MDPI, 2022) Shamanin, Vladimir P.; Tekin-Çakmak, Zeynep Hazal; Gordeeva, Elena I.; Karasu, Salih; Pototskaya, Inna; Chursin, Alexandr S.; Pozherukov, Violetta E.; Özülkü, Görkem; Morgounov, Alexey I.; Sağdıc, Osman; Köksel, Hamit
    The total phenolic content, phenolic compositions, and antioxidant capacity in the grain of 40 purple wheat genotypes were studied. In this study, purple wheats were investigated in terms of their composition of free and bound phenolic acids and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. The free phenolic content ranged from 164.25 to 271.05 mg GAE/100 g DW and the bound phenolic content was between 182.89-565.62 mg GAE/100 g wheat. The total phenolic content of purple wheat samples ranged from 352.65 to 771.83 mg GAE/100 g wheat. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, m-coumaric acid, o-coumaric acid, chrysin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, rutin, sinapic acid, and chlorogenic acid were detected by HPLC system. Gallic acid, benzoic acid derivatives, and dominant phenolics, which are frequently found in cereals, were also dominant in purple wheat samples and were found in free fractions. The antioxidant capacity was assessed using the DPPH method. The antioxidant capacity (AA%) in the free phenolic extracts of the purple wheats was between 39.7% and 59.5%, and the AA% values of bound phenolic extract of the purple wheat varied between 42.6% and 62.7%. This study suggested that purple wheat samples have high phenolic compound content as antioxidant potential and therefore consumption of purple wheat-containing food products may provide health benefits.
  • Öğe
    Bioactive diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) in Turkish coffees: Impact of roasting
    (UNIV PUTRA MALAYSIA PRESS, 2022) Eren, F. H.; Besler, Halit Tanju
    While the cholesterol-raising effect of coffee has been ascribed to the presence of diterpenes, they have also been shown to present favourable health effects. Boiled-type coffees show slightly higher levels of diterpenes than those made with other brewing methods. However, there is considerable controversy regarding the effect of roasting on the contents of the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to measure the contents of these diterpenes in Turkish coffees, and to determine how they are influenced by roasting. The samples used were 16 roasted and ready-ground Turkish coffees sold in supermarkets in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The cafestol and kahweol contents of the coffee samples were analysed using liquid-liquid extraction followed by HPLC-DAD. The lipid contents of commercially roasted and ground Turkish coffee samples varied in the range of 14.32 +/- 0.09 to 15.60 +/- 0.09 g/100 g. The lipid contents of brewed Turkish coffee samples varied from 318 +/- 2.00 to 571 +/- 4.30 mg/100 mL. When compared within each commercial brand, dark roasted ground Turkish coffee samples had higher lipid contents. The average diterpene content in one cup of Turkish coffee sample was between 2.69 +/- 0.28 and 13.58 +/- 0.88 mg. The ranges of cafestol and kahweol contents in a cup were 1.4 +/- 0.21 - 6.9 +/- 0.65 mg and 1.28 +/- 0.07 - 6.68 +/- 0.28 mg, respectively. Within products of the same brand, the highest amount of oil was observed in dark roasted Turkish coffee beverages. and no signif icant differences were found in total diterpene, cafestol, and kahweol contents in coffee beverages among the different roasting levels. It is recommended that future studies perform more detailed investigations of the effect of roasting on the diterpene contents in Turkish coffees, and the impact of preparation parameters, as well as the presence of diterpene-derived compounds. (C) All Rights Reserved
  • Öğe
    DNA damage response inhibitors in cholangiocarcinoma: current progress and perspectives
    (PubMed, 2022) Anichini, Giulia; Ulukaya, Engin; Marra, Fabio; Raggi, Chiara; Geyik, Öykü Gönül
    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a poorly treatable type of cancer and its incidence is dramatically increasing. The lack of understanding of the biology of this tumor has slowed down the identification of novel targets and the development of effective treatments. Based on next generation sequencing profiling, alterations in DNA damage response (DDR)-related genes are paving the way for DDR-targeting strategies in CCA. Based on the notion of synthetic lethality, several DDR-inhibitors (DDRi) have been developed with the aim of accumulating enough DNA damage to induce cell death in tumor cells. Observing that DDRi alone could be insufficient for clinical use in CCA patients, the combination of DNA-damaging regimens with targeted approaches has started to be considered, as evidenced by many emerging clinical trials. Hence, novel therapeutic strategies combining DDRi with patient-specific targeted drugs could be the next level for treating cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Öğe
    Rapid discrimination of authenticity in wheat flour and pasta samples using LIBS
    (Academic Press, 2022) Sezer, B.; Unuvar, A.; Boyaci, I.H.; Köksel, Hamit
    In this study the possibility of using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to discriminate durum and common wheat samples both in flour and pasta and determine the adulteration ratio was explored. For this purpose, 120 common and 119 durum wheat samples including different genotypes were collected from various regions of Anatolia. LIBS spectra were evaluated with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and PLS to identify the wheat type and adulteration ratios. In PLS-DA study, sensitivity and specificity of calibration and cross-validation were found as 1.000 and 0.990. The coefficients of determination and limits of detection for durum flour adulteration were found to be 0.999 and 0.52%, respectively. The study demonstrated that LIBS is a promising tool and has potential to become a rapid, reliable, environmental friendly and nondestructive analytical technique for identification and detection of wheat flour adulteration in pasta. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd
  • Öğe
    Bile acid binding capacity, dietary fibre and phenolic contents of modern and old bread wheat varieties and landraces: a comparison over the course of around one century
    (SPRINGER, 2021) Cetiner, Buket; Tomoskozi, Sandor; Schall, Eszter; Salantur, Ayten; Köksel, Hamit
    The aim was to compare functional properties of modern and old bread wheats and Anatolian landraces to determine whether there have been substantial changes in these properties over the course of around one century (since 1930s). Six modern bread wheat varieties, nine old bread wheats registered prior to 1970 and three landraces grown in Anatolia were used in the study. Another aim was to compare gluten content in wheat landraces and one modern bread wheat variety. Modern wheat varieties had the highest average total dietary fibre content and bile acid binding capacity. Landraces had the highest soluble dietary fibre, total phenolic contents and phytic acid contents among all genotypes. Gluten levels of two landraces (Siyez and Karakilcik) were lower than the hexaploid wheats (cv. Tosunbey and landrace Sunter). Comparison of the genotypes indicated no data to point out that modern breeding technics had adverse effects on some of the functional properties considered in this study. The results showed that while modern varieties had superior results in some of the functional parameters investigated, old varieties or landraces had better results in others.
  • Öğe
    Multi-elemental analysis of flour types and breads by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy
    (Science Direct, 2020) Akin, P.A.; Sezer, B.; Sanal, T.; Apaydin, H.; Köksel, Hamit; Boyaci, İ.H.
    Bread and flour are most commonly used products in human diet, which makes it susceptible to adulteration, mislabeling and addition of unpermitted amount of different flour types. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to differentiate different flour types and quantify the white wheat flour addition to rye and oat flour and breads. In the principal component analysis, score plot represents pure flour types with 97.64% of the variance. In the calibration study, the measured coefficient of determination values was 0.989, 0.989, 0.992 and 0.991 for refined wheat flour: rye flour, refined wheat flour: oat flour, breads made with the blend of refined wheat: rye flour and the blend of refined wheat: oat flour, respectively. The limit of detection values were calculated as 3.82, 5.97, 4.59 and 4.92% for refined wheat flour: rye flour, refined wheat flour: oat flour, refined wheat: rye bread and refined wheat: oat bread, respectively.
  • Öğe
    Efficacy of krill oil versus fish oil on obesity-related parameters and lipid gene expression in rats: randomized controlled study
    (PeerJ, 2021) Çil, Mevra Aydın; Ghareaghaji, Atena Ghosi; Bayır, Yasin; Büyüktuncer, Zehra; Besler, Halit Tanju
    Backround. This study aimed to determine the effects of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation on the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases, and to compare the efficiency of different LC n-3PUFAsources via biochemical and genetic mechanisms in rats. Methods. Male Wistar rats were randomized into four study groups, and fed with a standard diet, High Fat Diet (HFD), HFD+%2.5 Fish Oil (FO-HFD) or HFD+%2.5 Krill Oil (KO-HFD) for eight weeks. Food consumption, weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, ghrelin and leptin concentrations, lipid profile, liver fatty acid composition, and FADS1 and FADS2 mRNA gene expression levels were measured. Results. Weight gain in each HFD group was significantly higher than control group (p<0:001), without any differences among them (p<0:05). LC n-3 PUFAs modified lipid profile, but not glucose tolerance. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in HFD groups than in the control group, however, no difference in serum ghrelin levels was observed among the groups. Liver n-3 fatty acid desaturation activity was higher (p D 0:74), and liver total lipid content was lower (p D 0:86) in KO-HFD compared to FO-HFD. FADS1 gene expression was highest in the HFD group (p<0:001) while FADS2 gene expression was highest in the FO-HFD group (p<0:001). Conclusion. LC n-3 PUFAs, especially krill oil, had moderate effects on lipid profile, but limited effects on obesity related parameters, suggesting different effects of different sources on gene expression levels. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the efficacy of different LC n-3PUFAsources in the prevention and treatment of obesity in humans.
  • Öğe
    Is obesity associated with lower mini mental test scores among elderly? a cross sectional study
    (Taylor & Francis Online, 2021) İnce, Nezire; Öztürk, Müjgan; Meseri, Reci; Besler, Halit Tanju
    Objectives: Obesity leads to many chronic diseases and its association with cognitive impairment is controversial. The objective was to investigate the association between obesity, anthropometric measurements and cognitive functions of elderly. Methods: Planned cross-sectionally, community-dwelling Cypriots (aged ? 50years) without any neurological disorders, were included. Cognitive impairment evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was the dependent variable. Socio-demographic variables, anthropometric measurements and obesity were the independent variables. The data was collected via face-to-face interview. Logistic regression models were constituted to determine the association of anthropometric measurements, obesity and dementia. Results: The mean age of participants (n=541) was 60.0±8.7 for women (n=377) and 61.5±6.0years for men (n=164). According to MMSE, 26.0% of women and 11.0% of men had mild-dementia, and the rest scored normal. After adjusted for age and sex, each unit increase in BMI (OR: 1.045, 95%CI: 1.008–1.091), Waist to height ratio (WHtR; OR: 1.030, 95%CI: 1.006–1.055) and Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC; OR: 1.077, 95%CI: 1.016–1.141) increases the risk of mild-dementia. When education, employment and smoking were included in the models, significance of anthropometric measurements was diminished and only sex and education were remained significant for all. Conclusion: After controlled for age and sex, increment in anthropometric measurements increased the risk of dementia but when education was taken into consideration, this significant association was diminished showing that sex and education is more predominant in a heterogeneous group in means of education. Thus, for heterogeneous groups it might be better to revise MMSE. To determine the association between obesity and dementia cohort studies with longer follow-up duration with larger samples are needed.
  • Öğe
    Development and validity of a food frequency questionnaire for assessing vitamin C intake in Turkish adults
    (2020) Emiroğlu, Elif; Güneş, Fatma Esra; Karakoyun, Berna
    This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed to determine vitamin C intake. Material and Methods: This research was carried out at Istanbul University Faculty of Dentistry between October 2017 and May 2018. There were 75 individuals in this study, who were 18-65 years old. In order to determine the level of vitamin C intake of individuals, a FFQ was formed which contains the consumption frequency and the amount of consumption of 83 foods and its language is Turkish. After the determination of the plasma ascorbic acid level (PAAL) of the individuals, the validity of the questionnaire was examined by Spearman correlation test, Bland Altman plot and kappa statistics. All statistical analysis were performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 Software and statistically significant differences were determined using a p value <0.05. Results: A total of 75 people (31 male and 44 female) participated in this study, and the mean age was 35.69±10.35 years. The median PAAL was 7.94 mg/L, while the median intake of vitamin C was 136.84 mg/d. There was a positive correlation between PAAL and intake of vitamin C (r=0.41; p<0.001). The values of PAAL and intake of vitamin C calculated by FFQ were divided into quartiles, and the rate of the classifying into the same or adjacent quartile was 81.4%. Conclusion: In conclusion, this questionnaire can be used to determine intake of vitamin C in Turkish adults.
  • Öğe
    A novel approach for rapid discrimination of common and durum wheat flours using spectroscopic analyses combined with chemometrics
    (Academic Press, 2021) Unuvar, A.; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Köksel, Hamit
    Spectroscopic methods were used in this study for the discrimination of durum and common wheat samples since they are rapid, reliable, easy to use, low cost, environmentally friendly, and non-destructive. For this purpose, 120 common and 119 durum wheat samples with different genotypes were collected from various regions in Turkey and analysed using Raman spectroscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Data analysis was performed using the principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). These spectroscopic tools, combined with chemometric analysis, were generally successful in distinguishing common and durum wheat flour samples. It was found that the best method was SFS with a discrimination rate of 100% based on high sensitivity (1.000) and specificity (1.000) values. The effectiveness of the models in which NIR and ATR-FTIR spectroscopies were used was found to be highly similar in terms of the discrimination of durum and common wheat samples. Data obtained from Raman Spectroscopy demonstrated that the method was less sensitive in discriminating between common and durum wheat flour samples than the other spectroscopic techniques with a quite high RMSEP value (0.441). SFS, ATR-FTIR, and NIR spectroscopies proved to be more sensitive and applicable tools than Raman spectroscopy in the discrimination of common and durum wheat samples.
  • Öğe
    Minimisation of vitamin losses in fortified cookies by response surface methodology and validation of the determination methods
    (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2021) Aktas-Akyildiz, E.; Köksel, Hamit
    Food fortification is one of the global strategies to decrease micronutrient deficiency in the society. Flour, cereal products including cookies, are significant vehicles for food fortification. In this study, flour was fortified with thiamine, riboflavin and niacin at a level to meet 25–35% of recommended dietary allowance for each vitamin. Cookies were produced using the fortified flour with some variation in baking temperatures (190, 205, and 220 °C) and baking times (9, 12, and 15 min). Effects of baking temperatures and baking times on quality characteristics, colour values, and vitamin contents of fortified cookies were investigated. The processing conditions were optimised by response surface methodology (RSM) to minimise the vitamin losses in cookies. The vitamin losses in the cookies produced at different baking temperatures and baking times were in the range of 1.8–50.0%, 1.6–24.4% and 0.6–11.9% for thiamine, riboflavin and niacin, respectively. Validation studies were also carried out and the results indicated that the equipment and the method were suitable for vitamin B analyses in cookies. Overall, the optimum conditions for minimum vitamin losses were determined as 190 °C baking temperature and 15-min baking time according to RSM.
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    Endokrin bozucu bir kimyasal olan Bisfenol A’nın sağlık üzerine etkileri
    (DergiPark, 2020) Çelik, Yeter; Şahin, Selen
    Endokrin bozucu kimyasallar, organizmada bakım, homeostasis, düzenleme ve gelişme işlemlerinden sorumlu hormonların üretimi, salınımı, taşınması, metabolizması, eliminasyonu veya aktivitesini etkileyerek endokrin sistemin fonksiyonunu değiştiren ekzojen maddelerdir. Bisfenol A, 1940’lardan itibaren polikarbonat plastiklerin ve epoksi reçinelerin bileşiminde geniş ölçüde kullanılan ve en çok bilinen endokrin bozucudur. Bisfenol A’nın insan östrojen reseptörüne bağlandığı ve aktive ettiği bildirilmiş; bunun sonucunda Bisfenol A sentetik östrojen olarak rapor edilmiştir. Bisfenol A, gıda paketlemede, yiyeceklere teması olan materyallerde, kozmetiklerde, oyuncaklarda, çantalarda, ayakkabılarda, ilaçlarda, medikal malzemelerde ve yapı malzemeleri gibi birçok alanda yaygın olarak bulunabilmektedir. İnsanlarda Bisfenol A maruziyeti temel olarak diyet (yiyecek veya yiyecek ile temas eden malzemeler) ve su aracılığı ile oluşur. Çalışmalar insan idrarında, sütünde, kanda ve tükürükte düşük dozlarda Bisfenol A olduğunu göstermiştir. Bisfenol A’ya maruziyetin bu kadar fazla olması sağlık üzerine etkilerinin incelenmesini kaçınılmaz hale getirmiştir. Bu nedenle bu yazıda Bisfenol A’ya maruz kalma sonucu oluşabilecek potansiyel riskler tartışılmıştır.
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    Acrylamide-encapsulated glucose oxidase inhibits breast cancer cell viability
    (WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH, 2020) Rrustemi, Trendelina; Gönül Geyik, Öykü; Özkaya, Ali Burak; Öztürk, Taylan Kurtuluş; Yüce, Zeynep; Kılınç, Ali
    Objectives: Cancer cells modulate metabolic pathways to ensure continuity of energy, macromolecules and redoxhomeostasis. Although these vulnerabilities are often targeted individually, targeting all with an enzyme may prove a novel approach. However, therapeutic enzymes are prone to proteolytic degradation and neutralizing antibodies leading to a reduced half-life and effectiveness. We hypothesized that glucose oxidase (GOX) enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of glucose and production of hydrogen peroxide, may hit all these targets by depleting glucose; crippling anabolic pathways and producing reactive oxygen species (ROS); unbalancing redox homeostasis. Methods: We encapsulated GOX in an acrylamide layer and then performed activity assays in denaturizing settings to determine protection provided by encapsulation. Afterwards, we tested the effects of encapsulated (enGOX) and free (fGOX) enzyme on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results: GOX preserved 70% of its activity following encapsulation. When fGOX and enGOX treated with guanidinium chloride, fGOX lost approximately 72% of its activity, while enGOX only lost 30%. Both forms demonstrated remarkable resilience against degradation by proteinase K and inhibited viability of MCF-7 cells in an activity-dependent manner. Conclusions: Encapsulation provided protection to GOX against denaturation without reducing its activity, which would prolong half-life of the enzyme when administered intravenously.
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    Evaluation of nutritional behavior related to Covid-19
    (2021) Elmacıoğlu, Funda; Emiroğlu, Elif; Ülker, Mutlu Tuçe; Özyılmaz Kırcalı, Berkin; Oruç, Sena
    Objective: It is known that social isolation process has an impact on individuals' eating behaviors. Continuing nutritional behavior resulting from emotional eating, uncontrolled eating and cognitive restriction may turn into eating disorders in the future. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possible effects of Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and social isolation process on individuals' nutritional behaviors and body weight changes. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Nutritional behaviors of the participants before the COVID-19 pandemic and in the social isolation process were evaluated with the Three Factor Nutrition Questionnaire (TFEQ-R18). The changes in individuals' body weight during this period was also evaluated. Participants: A total of 1036 volunteer individuals (827 women, 209 men) aged 18 and over participated in the study. Results: During the COVID-19 pandemic and social isolation process, there was an increase in emotional eating and uncontrolled eating behaviors of individuals, but no significant change in cognitive restriction behavior occurred (p = <0.00; p = <0.00 and p = 0.53, respectively). It was reported that the body weight of 35% of the individuals who participated in the study increased during this period. Conclusion: Social isolation process practiced as a result of COVID-19 pandemic may lead to changes in some nutritional behaviors. Some precautions should be taken to prevent this situation that occurs in nutritional behaviors from causing negative health problems in the future.