Antibiotic resistance knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pharmacists : a cross-sectional study in West Bank, Palestine

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Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem worldwide. Dispensing antibiotics without prescription is a major contributing factor to antibiotic resistance. Pharmacists as healthcare providers are, in many studies, considered responsible for this practice. -is study aims to explore Palestinian pharmacists’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning antibiotic resistance. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2021–2022. A random sample of 152 pharmacists was selected from the West Bank. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that includes :ve sections: demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices, and potential interventions. Results indicated that 60% of pharmacists dispense antibiotics without a prescription. A signifcant association between pharmacies’ locality and antibiotic knowledge, attitudes, and practices was found. Pharmacists’ knowledge-related responses indicated that 92.1% of the pharmacists agreed that inappropriate use of antibiotics can lead to in effective treatment and 86.2% disagreed that patients can stop taking antibiotics upon symptoms’ improvement. Only 17.1% disagreed that antibiotics should always be used to treat upper respiratory tract infections. Over two thirds considered that they are aware of the regulations about antibiotic dispensing and acknowledged that antibiotics are classified as prescription drugs. Furthermore, 71.7% and 53.3% agreed that they have good knowledge of the pharmacological aspects of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. Concerning attitudes, 75.6% agreed that antibiotic resistance is an important and serious public health issue facing the world, and 52% thought that antibiotic dispensing without a prescription is a common practice in the West Bank. Our findings indicate that pharmacists’ locality and practices related to antibiotic dispensing without prescription are associated with the increase in antibiotics misuse and bacterial resistance. -ere is a need to design education and training programs and implement legislation in Palestine to decrease antibiotic resistance.


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Antibiotic Resistance, Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, Pharmacists


Journal of Environmental and Public Health

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Al-Halawa, D. A., Seir, R. A., & Qasrawi, R. (2023). Antibiotic Resistance Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Pharmacists: A Cross-Sectional Study in West Bank, Palestine. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2023.