Medyanın “pandemi” sınavı: Covid-19 salgınının Türkiye’de haber tüketim alışkanlıklarına etkisi

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The coronavirus epidemic, which started in Wuhan in China in December 2019 and spread all over the world in a short time, has also been a critical period in terms of media production and the transformation of news habits. News organizations reached a record number of readers and viewers during the period of struggle with the pandemic in which news consumption increased significantly. The existing relationships with conventional media and social media platforms, which have become the most important source of information for millions of people who are locked in their homes during the isolation process, have entered a reconstruction phase. Ultimately, the epidemic once again reveals the critical importance of journalism in times of crisis. In our research, the readers and audience habits for the media and news were examined, and its effect on news and content production during the coronavirus period has been tried to be measured periodically. In this direction, 328 readers' surveys, which are deemed valid to determine whether the reader preferences have changed during the coronavirus epidemic process, the duration of the news, the sources of information and the trust in epidemic reporting were evaluated, and the SPSS 17.0 program was used to process the data. In this extraordinary process, the transformation of media habits and the relations of the news reader and its audience with the media were examined. In the study, where it was determined that trust in the media increased positively during the epidemic period, it was observed that access to news through digital platforms increased, and readers over the age of 40 did not give up on traditional media tools. Another result of the study, in which the relationship between education level and news consumption was measured periodically, was that the need for access to news increased during the pandemic period as the education level decreased
The coronavirus (Covid19) pandemic process can be a permanent and critical threshold for the transformation of the media-reader relationship. This study, in December 2019 shortly after being detected in Wuhan city of China, while in the four corners of the world under the influence of space coronavirus outbreak in Turkey aims to determine how the shape of the media. It is clear that what happened in this traumatic period will have a permanent effect. Readers and viewers who stay at their homes during the epidemic, live in isolation and wonder about the developments in the world is important for the near future of the media due to changing media usage patterns. Statistical analysis of national representative survey data that forms the basis of our research; it will present various data regarding the news consumption of users who turn to websites, print newspapers and TV channels to get news, by looking at various age and occupational groups. At the same time, it was aimed to conduct a correlation analysis regarding the trust in the media and the benefits provided by the news. According to the Uses and Gratifications Theory, one of the mainstream communication theories, it is up to people to take or not to receive media content, and it is also individuals who decide where and how to receive these messages and what to do with this information. Therefore, finding the answer to the question "What are people doing with the media" is not a question of "what does the media do to people?" Uses and Gratifications Theory, which is based on the answer to the second question, can transform established media usage routines when there are crises such as epidemics, terrorist attacks, traumatic events and earthquakes, even if readers and viewers develop certain patterns and habits of news and media use in their daily routines. Even in individuals with the lowest habit of reading news and following developments, the need to get information about instant developments in such chaotic periods is at the highest levels and rapidly. Aware of this periodic need, media outlets work to provide people with a lot of information, views and last-minute developments that they can turn to at any time, especially during crises. With this study in Turkey to produce information on media usage and perception and use of coronavirus outbreak in the process aimed to identify trends of news sources with media. Our research, which examines the attitudes and behaviors of print media readers using newspaper and internet news sites during the coronavirus epidemic process, is a qualitative research examining the first data of this transformation within the framework of the " Uses and Gratifications Theory". During an outbreak of coronavirus media usage in Turkey it is discussed from various angles. In times of social crisis such as epidemics, individuals and societies' perceptions of reality change, their concerns about the future increase, feelings of anxiety, indecision and panic prevail. The effect of these cognitive-emotional traumas on the media leads to an increase in the need for news. Individuals both want to be aware of what is happening as soon as possible and need intense information to adapt to the new situation. During the epidemic period, three out of every four individuals participating in the research turn to internet news sites primarily for news. During this period, it was observed that readers and viewers received information by accessing more than one medium - especially on epidemic-related issues - instead of a single medium. In this study, it was aimed to determine whether the preferences of the audience changed during the Covid-19 outbreak, the time to read the news, the sources of news and the trust in epidemic reporting. Our research clearly shows the differences created by demographic findings - especially the age factor - in terms of media use before and during the epidemic. Significant differences have emerged between the young and old age groups of the society in various topics ranging from the use of media tools to reach outbreak news, access and regular follow-up of resources, the formation of purpose and perception. It has been observed that young people reach media tools mostly through digital platforms, and they have access to more news during the epidemic period. In this case, it has been observed that the middle age group continues to prefer traditional media tools, while the group over 40 tries to maintain their traditional media habits such as TV and daily newspapers. According to the findings obtained from the research, three out of every four individuals participating in the study during the epidemic period, primarily turn to internet news sites for news. During this period, it was observed that readers and viewers received information by accessing more than one medium - especially on epidemic-related issues - instead of a single medium. Access to media tools, monitoring, perception and behavior is an important factor in education level. Accordingly, it is an important determinant of education levels in terms of media consumption and trust. It has been observed that as the education level decreases, the number of individuals who spend more time on the news and media consumption increased during the epidemic period. confidence levels and news media in Turkey has fallen steadily in recent years. Although social, economic and demographic differences occurred during the epidemic period, it was found that media trust was positively affected. There was a decrease in the rate of those who said they did not trust the media during the pre-epidemic period, and even the high rate of those who said "they were hesitant to trust" was remarkable. Considering the previous trust measurements, it can be assumed that the rate of indecision is a positive sign in terms of media-reader relations, which have been hurt in recent years. In the study, the effect of the political polarization of the media on readers and viewers during the epidemic period was also tried to be measured, and the perception of political opinion differences during the epidemic period was also measured in the light of the investigations. Since it is known that political advocacy causes serious content differences in news media, the effect of this effect causing social polarization is important. It has been observed that the political polarization in the media was in the focus of the readers and the audience during the epidemic period. Most of the news viewers would agree that political advocacy has increased during the epidemic. The coronavirus can be a permanent and critical threshold for transformation of the media-reader relationship. Digital news media have completely consolidated their place in this period, and the need for news has risen to an unprecedented rise in recent years. It is not surprising that in times of crisis, the reader's need for information increases and they start to use resources more effectively. To evaluate audience and reader behavior from the perspective of individuals, it is necessary to monitor behavior in times of crisis. During the coronavirus epidemic, the readers and viewers; defining which media they will continue to turn to, their use of media and how their trust relations are shaped will determine the near future of the media.
: Çin’in Wuhan kentinde 2019 Aralık ayında başlayan ve kısa zaman içerisinde tüm dünyaya yayılan koronavirüs salgını, medya üretimi ve haber alışkanlıklarının dönüşümü açısından da kritik bir dönem yaşanmasına yol açmıştır. Haber tüketiminin belirgin bir şekilde arttığı pandemiyle mücadele sürecinde, haber kurumları rekor düzeyde okur ve izleyici sayısına ulaşmıştır. İzolasyon sürecinde evlerine kapanan milyonlarca insan için en önemli enformasyon kaynağı haline gelen konvansiyonel medya ve sosyal medya platformlarıyla olan mevcut ilişkiler yeniden yapılanma evresine girmiştir. Nihayetinde sözkonusu salgın, gazeteciliğin ve haberin kriz dönemlerindeki kritik önemini bir kez daha ortaya koymaktadır. Araştırmamızda medya ve habere yönelik okur ile izleyici alışkanlıkları incelemeye tabi tutulmuş, koronavirüs salgını dönemindeki haber ve içerik üretiminin; bu ilişkiye olan etkisi dönemsel olarak ölçülmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda pandemi sürecinde okur tercihlerinin değişip değişmediğini, haber okuma süresini, haber alma kaynaklarını ve salgın haberciliğine duyulan güveni belirlemeye yönelik olarak 328 okur anketi değerlendirilmiş, verilerin işlenmesinde SPSS 17.0 programı kullanılmıştır. Bu olağanüstü süreçte, haber alma yöntemlerine yönelik alışkanlıkların dönüşümü ile okur ve izleyicinin medya ile ilişkileri incelenmiştir. Salgın döneminde medyaya duyulan güvenin olumlu yönde artış gösterdiğinin saptandığı çalışmada, dijital platformlar üzerinden habere erişimin arttığı, 40 yaş üzeri okur kitlesinin ise geleneksel medya araçlarından vazgeçmediği görülmüştür. Eğitim düzeyi ile haber tüketimi arasındaki ilişkinin dönemsel olarak ölçümlendiği çalışmanın bir diğer sonucu ise, eğitim düzeyi düştükçe habere erişim ihtiyacının artması olmuştur.


Anahtar Kelimeler

Gazetecilik, Güven, Haber Tüketim Eğilimleri, Medyaya Güven, Salgın, Journalism, Epidemic, Trusting Media, News Consumption Trends


Turkish Studies - Social Sciences

WoS Q Değeri

Scopus Q Değeri






PAKKAN Ş,İLDAŞ G (2021). Medyanın “Pandemi” Sınavı: Covid-19 Salgınının Türkiye’de Haber Tüketim Alışkanlıklarına Etkisi. Turkish Studies - Social Sciences , 16(1), 229 - 247. Doi: 10.47356/TurkishStudies.47057