Investigatıon of Neurosphere Activity of Injectable 3D Graphene Bioink Biomaterial

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Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH

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Purpose: The aim of this study includes the comparative examination of neurosphere formation by WJ-derived mesenchymal stem cells in both 2D media and 3D injectable graphene and graphene-free bioink systems in terms of both immunostaining and gene expression levels. Methods: For this purpose, hydrogel bioinks were first created and the wj-MKH spheroidal structure was formed on 3D-B (without graphene) and 3D-G (containing graphene). Then, following the differentiation procedure, neurosphere transformations were identified by both immunostaining (b-III Tubulin and Sox2), and Tubulin 3, Sox2, and Nestin markers were examined at the gene expression level with Real-Time PCR, and the results were compared with the 2D environment. Results: According to the results obtained, neurosphere formation occurred more in the 3D environment compared to the 2D environment, obtained both by immunostaining and gene expression levels. It was also observed that differentiation formed neuron-like structures, especially in the 3D-G group containing graphene. Conclusion: As a result, it has been observed that the use of graphene with a non-toxic concentration in the hydrogel injectable system provides better differentiation of stem cells, especially those that will form the cell leg of the biomaterial. Lay Summary: Therefore, the use of graphene-containing hydrogels in injectable systems in nerve damage may increase the effectiveness on nerve regeneration. © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Regenerative Engineering Society 2024.


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3d, Bioink, Graphene, Neuroengineering


Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine

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