Evaluation of wheat germ oil biofuel in diesel engine with hydrogen, bioethanol dual fuel and fuel ionization strategies

Küçük Resim Yok



Dergi Başlığı

Dergi ISSN

Cilt Başlığı


Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd

Erişim Hakkı



The work has been done with the objective of overcoming the sustainability and environmental degradation pertaining to the increasing consumption of diesel fuel. This can be done by replacing it with vegetable oils because they are renewable and eco-friendly. In this regard, initially, this study investigated the performance of a single-cylinder diesel engine fuelled by neat wheat germ oil (WTGO). The results proved that the performance of WTGO was way inferior to that of sole diesel due to its very high viscosity nature. The BTE given by WTGO at full load was 2.1% lesser than diesel. Apart from NOx and CO2, other emissions like CO, smoke, and HC were higher for WTGO in comparison to diesel. To improve the performance and emission of WTGO, various fuel modification methods were employed with it, and the results of those methods were compared with neat diesel and WTGO. The methods adopted in this study are: i) Trans-esterified WTGO (biodiesel), ii) Fuel ionization using a magnetic field (Permanent and electrical type), iii) Dual fuel mode: WTGO operated in combination with ethanol and hydrogen. Among these, dual fuel operation of WTGO and hydrogen resulted in maximum brake thermal efficiency, followed by dual fuel operation with ethanol (30% energy share), fuel ionization (both types), and WTGO biodiesel. The WTGO, with a 15% hydrogen energy share, showed the highest BTE of 29.8%, which was higher than neat diesel (28.7%) and WTGO (26.6%). The same method reduced the HC and CO emissions by 39.3% and 40.5%, respectively, when compared to neat WTGO. All methods decreased the smoke emission, and the lowest was recorded by WTGO biodiesel, which was lesser by 21.7% and 6.1% compared to WTGO and diesel, respectively. The peak heat release rate and pressure were higher for all fuel modifications as compared to neat WTGO, but only WTGO and 15% hydrogen energy share of dual fuel operation exhibited higher peak values than diesel. The neat WTGO experienced the most delayed start of combustion, and it was improved with the implication of the above methods. The operation of WTGO in dual fuel mode resulted in the least delay for the start of combustion but was not equivalent to neat diesel. Finally, it is recommended that using hydrogen in dual fuel mode is the best way to achieve maximum performance with WTGO as a fuel for diesel engines without any major modifications to the engine.


Anahtar Kelimeler

Wheat Germ Oil, Biodiesel, Fuel Ionization, Dual Fuel Mode, Hydrogen, Ethanol


International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

WoS Q Değeri


Scopus Q Değeri