Pulmonary delivery of favipiravir in rats reaches high local concentrations without causing oxidative lung injury or sSystemic side effects


Favipiravir displays a rapid viral clearance, a high recovery rate and broad therapeutic safety; however, its oral administration was associated with systemic side effects in susceptible patients. Considering that the pulmonary route could provide a high drug concentration, and a safer application with less absorption into systemic circulation, it was aimed to elucidate whether favipiravir delivered via soft-mist inhaler has any deleterious effects on lung, liver and kidney tissues of healthy rats. Wistar albino rats of both sexes (n = 72) were placed in restrainers, and were given either saline or favipiravir (1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg in 1 mL saline) by inhalation within 2 min for 5 consecutive days. On the 6th day, electrocardiographic recording was obtained, and cardiac blood and lung tissues were collected. Favipiravir did not alter cardiac rhythm, blood cell counts, serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, urea or uric acid, and did not cause any significant changes in the pulmonary malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase activity or antioxidant glutathione levels. Our data revealed that pulmonary use of favipiravir via soft-mist inhaler enables a high local concentration compared to plasma without oxidative lung injury or cardiac or hepatorenal dysfunction.


Anahtar Kelimeler

COVID-19, Antiviral, Cardiac Toxicity, Favipiravir, Hepatotoxicity, Inhalation, Oxidative Lung Injury, Pulmonary Route, Renal Toxicity



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Akbal-Dagistan O, Sevim M, Sen LS, Basarir NS, Culha M, Erturk A, Fael H, Kaptan E, Sancar S, Mulazimoglu Durmusoglu L, Yegen BC, Yildiz-Pekoz A. Pulmonary Delivery of Favipiravir in Rats Reaches High Local Concentrations without Causing Oxidative Lung Injury or Systemic Side Effects. Pharmaceutics. 2022 Nov 4;14(11):2375. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14112375. PMID: 36365193.