Production of biodiesel from waste fish fat through ultrasound-assisted transesterification using petro-diesel as cosolvent and optimization of process parameters using response surface methodology

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Springer Heidelberg

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Biodiesel is a highly promising and viable alternative to fossil-based diesel that also addresses the urgent need for effective waste management. It can be synthesized by the chemical modification of triglycerides sourced from vegetable origin, animal fat, or algal oil. The transesterification reaction is the preferred method of producing biodiesel. However, the non-miscibility of alcohol and oil layer causes excessive utilization of alcohol, catalyst, and a substantial reacting time and temperature. In the current investigation, transesterification of waste fish oil was performed with petro-diesel as cosolvent, under the influence of ultrasound energy. The combination of both techniques is a unique and efficient way to minimize the mass transfer limitations considerably and hence reduces the parameters of the reaction. It is also a sincere effort to comply with the principles of green chemistry. The optimum reaction conditions were obtained using response surface methodology (RSM) that were as follows: molar ratio of methanol to oil 9.09:1, catalyst concentration of 0.97 wt%, cosolvent concentration of 29.1 wt%, temperature 60.1celcius, and a reacting time 30 min. Under these listed conditions, 98.1% biodiesel was achievable, which was in close agreement with the expected result. In addition, the cosolvent removal step from the crude biodiesel was also eliminated as it could be employed as a blended fuel in CI engines.


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Homogeneous Catalyst, Free Fatty Acid, Cosolvent, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Optimization, Ultrasonication


Environmental Science and Pollution Research

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