Regulation of Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway in cancer drug resistance by galectin-1: cellular and molecular implications

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Oae Publishing Inc

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Oxidative stress is characterized by the deregulation of the redox state in the cells, which plays a role in the initiation of various types of cancers. The activity of galectin-1 (Gal -1) depends on the cell redox state and the redox state of the microenvironment. Gal -1 expression has been related to many different tumor types, as it plays important roles in several processes involved in cancer progression, such as apoptosis, cell migration, adhesion, and immune response. The erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) signaling pathway is a crucial mechanism involved in both cell survival and cell defense against oxidative stress. In this review, we delve into the cellular and molecular roles played by Gal -1 in the context of oxidative stress onset in cancer cells, particularly focusing on its involvement in activating the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway. The emerging evidence concerning the anti-apoptotic effect of Gal -1, together with its ability to sustain the activation of the Nrf2 pathway in counteracting oxidative stress, supports the role of Gal -1 in the promotion of tumor cells proliferation, immuno-suppression, and anti -tumor drug resistance, thus highlighting that the inhibition of Gal -1 emerges as a potential strategy for the restraint and regression of tumor progression. Overall, a deeper understanding of the multi -functionality and disease -specific expression profiling of Gal -1 will be crucial for the design and development of novel Gal -1 inhibitors as anticancer agents. Excitingly, although it is still understudied, the ever-growing knowledge of the sophisticated interplay between Gal -1 and Nrf2/Keap1 will enable researchers to gain valuable insights into the underlying causes of carcinogenesis and metastasis.


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Galectin-1, Nrf2, Oxidative Stress, Cancer Drug Resistance


Cancer Drug Resistance

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