A comprehensive review on novel targeted therapy methods and nanotechnology-based gene delivery systems in melanoma

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Melanoma, a malignant form of skin cancer, has been swiftly increasing in recent years. Although there have been significant advancements in clinical treatment underlying a well-understanding of melanoma-susceptible genes and the molecular basis of melanoma pathogenesis, the permanency of response to therapy is frequently constrained by the emergence of acquired resistance and systemic toxicity. Conventional therapies, including surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy, have already been used to treat melanoma and are dependent on the cancer stage. Nevertheless, ineffective side effects and the heterogeneity of tumors pose major obstacles to the therapeutic treatment of malignant melanoma through such strategies. In light of this, advanced therapies including nucleic acid therapies (ncRNA, aptamers), suicide gene therapies, and gene therapy using tumor suppressor genes, have lately gained immense attention in the field of cancer treat-ment. Furthermore, nanomedicine and targeted therapy based on gene editing tools have been applied to the treatment of melanoma as potential cancer treatment approaches nowadays. Indeed, nanovectors enable delivery of the therapeutic agents into the tumor sites by passive or active targeting, improving therapeutic efficiency and minimizing adverse effects. Accordingly, in this review, we summarized the recent findings related to novel targeted therapy methods as well as nanotechnology-based gene systems in melanoma. We also discussed current issues along with potential directions for future research, paving the way for the next-generation of melanoma treatments.


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Melanoma, Nanomedicine, Gene Delivery, Targeted Therapy, Nanovectors


European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

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