Effect of renal function on the prognostic importance of chloride in patients with heart failure

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Sage Publications Ltd

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Hypochloremia has recently gained interest as a potential marker of outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). The exact pathophysiologic mechanism linking hypochloremia to HF is unclear but is thought to be mediated by chloride-sensitive proteins and channels located in kidneys. This analysis aimed to understand whether renal dysfunction (RD) affects the association of hypochloremia with mortality in patients with HF. Using data from a nationwide registry, 438 cases with complete data on serum chloride concentration and 1-year survival were included in the analysis. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/m(2) at baseline were accepted as having RD. Hypochloremia was defined as a chloride concentration <96 mEq/L at baseline. For HF patients without RD at baseline, patients with hypochloremia had a significantly higher 1-year all-cause mortality than those without hypochloremia (41.6% vs 13.0%, log-rank p < 0.001) and the association remained significant after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio (OR): 2.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-5.21). The evidence supporting the association was very strong in this subgroup (Bayesian Factor (BF)(10): 48.25, log OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 0.69-2.43). For patients with RD at baseline, there was no statistically significant difference for 1-year mortality for patients with or without hypochloremia (36.3% vs 29.7, log-rank p = 0.35) and there was no evidence to support an association between hypochloremia and mortality (BF10: 1.18, log OR :0.66, 95% CI: -0.02 to 1.35). In patients with HF, the association between low chloride concentration and mortality is limited to those without RD at baseline.


Anahtar Kelimeler

Heart Failure, Mortality, Renal Dysfunction, Hypochloremia


Journal of Investigative Medicine

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