Gallic acid for cancer therapy: molecular mechanisms and boosting efficacy by nanoscopical delivery

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Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Majority of recent research efforts in the field aim to address why cancer resistance to therapy develops and how to overcome or prevent it. In line with this, novel anti-cancer compounds are desperately needed for chemoresistant cancer cells. Phytochemicals, in view of their pharmacological activities and capacity to target various molecular pathways, are of great interest in the development of therapeutics against cancer. Plant-derived-natural products have poor bioavailability which restricts their anti-tumor activity. Gallic acid (GA) is a phenolic acid exclusively found in natural sources such as gallnut, sumac, tea leaves, and oak bark. In this review, we report on the most recent research related to anti-tumor activities of GA in various cancers with a focus on its underlying molecular mechanisms and cellular pathwaysthat that lead to apoptosis and migration of cancer cells. GA down-regulates the expression of molecular pathways involved in cancer progression such as PI3K/Akt. The co-administration of GA with chemotherapeutic agents shows improvements in suppressing cancer malignancy. Various nano-vehicles such as organic- and inorganic nano-materials have been developed for targeted delivery of GA at the tumor site. Here, we suggest that nano-vehicles improve GA bioavailability and its ability for tumor suppression.


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Gallic Acid, Cancer Treatment, Medicinal Herbs, Nano-scale Delivery, Apoptosis, Metastasis


Food and Chemical Toxicology

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Ashrafizadeh, M., Zarrabi, A., Mirzaei, S., Hashemi, F., Samarghandian, S., Zabolian, A., Hushmandi, K., Ang, H. L., Sethi, G., Kumar, A. P., Ahn, K. S., Nabavi, N., Khan, H., Makvandi, P., & Varma, R. S. (2021). Gallic acid for cancer therapy: Molecular mechanisms and boosting efficacy by nanoscopical delivery. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 157.